Pericarditis is an inflammatory disease of the pericardium. Progress has been done in recent years in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In particular, pre-clinical and clinical studies have contributed to increasing our knowledge on the role of interleukin (IL)-1 and NLRP3 (NACHT, leucine- rich repeat, and pyrin domain- containing protein 3) inflammasome. Based on current evidence, pericarditis should be considered as an inflammatory reaction to various stimuli, including chemical/physical, infectious, or ischemic ones, with a viral infection being a common etiology. Interaction of pathogens or irritants with toll-like receptor (TLRs) and stimulation of IL-1 receptor by IL-1α and IL-1β lead to an increased transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, including those needed for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. This pathway is confirmed indirectly by the beneficial effect of colchicine (an indirect NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor) and IL-1 blockers in patients with recurrent pericarditis. More recently, a direct evidence of the NLRP3 inflammasome within the inflamed pericardium has been provided as well. It may, however, occur that selfantigens on the surface of mesothelial cells or microbial peptides may stimulate autoreactive T cells along with B cells producing anti-heart antibodies, although less evidence is available on this. Some uncertainties still remain about the role of neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and pericardial interstitial cells in recurrent and constrictive pericarditis. Unraveling these aspects might have a direct impact on the development of novel targeted therapies, especially considering the increasing number of drugs targeting NETs.

An update on the pathophysiology of acute and recurrent pericarditis / A. Bonaventura, A. Vecchié, A.G. Mauro, A.L. Brucato, M. Imazio, A. Abbate. - In: PANMINERVA MEDICA. - ISSN 0031-0808. - 63:3(2021 Sep), pp. 249-260. [10.23736/S0031-0808.20.04205-6]

An update on the pathophysiology of acute and recurrent pericarditis

A.L. Brucato;
2021

Abstract

Pericarditis is an inflammatory disease of the pericardium. Progress has been done in recent years in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In particular, pre-clinical and clinical studies have contributed to increasing our knowledge on the role of interleukin (IL)-1 and NLRP3 (NACHT, leucine- rich repeat, and pyrin domain- containing protein 3) inflammasome. Based on current evidence, pericarditis should be considered as an inflammatory reaction to various stimuli, including chemical/physical, infectious, or ischemic ones, with a viral infection being a common etiology. Interaction of pathogens or irritants with toll-like receptor (TLRs) and stimulation of IL-1 receptor by IL-1α and IL-1β lead to an increased transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, including those needed for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. This pathway is confirmed indirectly by the beneficial effect of colchicine (an indirect NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor) and IL-1 blockers in patients with recurrent pericarditis. More recently, a direct evidence of the NLRP3 inflammasome within the inflamed pericardium has been provided as well. It may, however, occur that selfantigens on the surface of mesothelial cells or microbial peptides may stimulate autoreactive T cells along with B cells producing anti-heart antibodies, although less evidence is available on this. Some uncertainties still remain about the role of neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and pericardial interstitial cells in recurrent and constrictive pericarditis. Unraveling these aspects might have a direct impact on the development of novel targeted therapies, especially considering the increasing number of drugs targeting NETs.
pericarditis; interleukin-1; NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 protein; rilonacept; neutrophils; caspase 1
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
18-dic-2020
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/874873
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