A source apportionment study was carried out at four sites in Emilia-Romagna region, southern Po Valley, one of the most critical regions in Europe in terms of atmospheric pollution. PM2.5 daily samples were collected during 4 years from April 2013 to October 2017 at one rural site (San Pietro Capofiume) and three urban background locations in the cities of Bologna, Rimini, Parma which show different features and are located in the central, coastal and inner part of the investigated region. Samples were analyzed to achieve a complete chemical characterization (carbon fractions, ions, and elements). A source apportionment analysis by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed and 6 PM2.5 factors were identified at all sites but the rural one (where 5 out of 6 of them were detected); the factors were associated to traffic with dust resuspension, biomass burning, oil combustion/ship emission, mix anthropogenic (not found at the rural site), ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with organics. Chemical profiles of factors were very similar among all the 4 sites, indicating that main pollution sources are basically the same at the 4 sites, while some differences emerged with regard to source contributions. Factors related to secondary components seem to explain almost 50% or even more of PM2.5 mass concentration in all seasons. Traffic and biomass burning are the most relevant contributors to PM2.5 in terms of primary components. A not negligible contribution of biomass burning results in Rimini during the summer, suggesting other possible sources of wood combustion, such as cooking or open burning of agricultural pruning bonfires. Agriculture is not singled out as a PMF factor, but a rough estimate based on ammonium concentrations and ammonia data from emission inventory indicates a contribution from this source of about 10% of PM2.5 mass, thus resulting the single productive activity with the highest impact on PM2.5 at the investigated sites. Back trajectory analysis points out the relevant extra-regional contributions of two factors; indeed, oil combustion/ship emission is related to long-range transport of air masses overpassing the Mediterranean sea and secondary sulfate from Eastern Europe countries occasionally impacts on the Po Valley.
A multi-year source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the southern Po Valley (Italy) / F. Scotto, D. Bacco, S. Lasagni, A. Trentini, V. Poluzzi, R. Vecchi. - In: ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION RESEARCH. - ISSN 1309-1042. - 12:11(2021 Nov), pp. 101192.1-101192.17. [10.1016/j.apr.2021.101192]
|Titolo:||A multi-year source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the southern Po Valley (Italy)|
|Parole Chiave:||Back trajectories; PM2.5; Po valley; Source apportionment; Positive matrix factorization; Back-trajectories|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)|
|Data di pubblicazione:||nov-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2021.101192|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|