Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease inherited by an autosomal recessive mechanism and characterized by a progressive and severe multi-organ failure. Mutations in Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein cause duct obstructions from dense mucus secretions and chronic inflammation related to organ damage. The progression of the disease is characterized by a decline of lung function associated with metabolic disorders and malnutrition, musculoskeletal disorders and thoracic deformities, leading to a progressive decrement of the individual's quality of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) qualifies Physical Activity (PA) as a structured activity produced by skeletal muscles' movements that requires energy consumption. In the last decade, the number of studies on PA increased considerably, including those investigating the effects of exercise on cognitive and brain health and mental performance. PA is recommended in CF management guidelines, since it improves clinic outcomes, such as peripheral neuropathy, oxygen uptake peak, bone health, glycemic control and respiratory functions. Several studies regarding the positive effects of exercise in patients with Cystic Fibrosis were carried out, but the link between the effects of exercise and cognitive and brain health in CF remains unclear. Animal models showed that exercise might improve learning and memory through structural changes of brain architecture, and such a causal relationship can also be described in humans. Indeed, both morphological and environmental factors seem to be involved in exercise-induced neural plasticity. An increase of gray matter volume in specific areas is detectable as a consequence of regular training in humans. Neurobiological processes associated with brain function improvements include biochemical modifications, such as neuromodulator or neurohormone release, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production and synaptic activity changes. From a functional point of view, PA also seems to be an environmental factor enhancing cognitive abilities, such as executive functions, memory and processing speed. This review describes the current state of research regarding the impacts of physical activity and exercise on cognitive functions, introducing a possible novel field of research for optimizing the management of Cystic Fibrosis.

Impact of physical activity on cognitive functions: A new field for research and management of cystic fibrosis / V. Elce, A. Del Pizzo, E. Nigro, G. Frisso, L. Martiniello, A. Daniele, A. Elce. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 10:7(2020 Jul 18), pp. 489.1-489.13. [10.3390/diagnostics10070489]

Impact of physical activity on cognitive functions: A new field for research and management of cystic fibrosis

E. Nigro;
2020

Abstract

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease inherited by an autosomal recessive mechanism and characterized by a progressive and severe multi-organ failure. Mutations in Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein cause duct obstructions from dense mucus secretions and chronic inflammation related to organ damage. The progression of the disease is characterized by a decline of lung function associated with metabolic disorders and malnutrition, musculoskeletal disorders and thoracic deformities, leading to a progressive decrement of the individual's quality of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) qualifies Physical Activity (PA) as a structured activity produced by skeletal muscles' movements that requires energy consumption. In the last decade, the number of studies on PA increased considerably, including those investigating the effects of exercise on cognitive and brain health and mental performance. PA is recommended in CF management guidelines, since it improves clinic outcomes, such as peripheral neuropathy, oxygen uptake peak, bone health, glycemic control and respiratory functions. Several studies regarding the positive effects of exercise in patients with Cystic Fibrosis were carried out, but the link between the effects of exercise and cognitive and brain health in CF remains unclear. Animal models showed that exercise might improve learning and memory through structural changes of brain architecture, and such a causal relationship can also be described in humans. Indeed, both morphological and environmental factors seem to be involved in exercise-induced neural plasticity. An increase of gray matter volume in specific areas is detectable as a consequence of regular training in humans. Neurobiological processes associated with brain function improvements include biochemical modifications, such as neuromodulator or neurohormone release, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production and synaptic activity changes. From a functional point of view, PA also seems to be an environmental factor enhancing cognitive abilities, such as executive functions, memory and processing speed. This review describes the current state of research regarding the impacts of physical activity and exercise on cognitive functions, introducing a possible novel field of research for optimizing the management of Cystic Fibrosis.
Brain; Cystic fibrosis; Physical activity
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
mag-2020
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/870194
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