The present article describes the decommissioning of a self-shielded 18 MeV medical cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 after 14 years of operation. A Monte Carlo simulation of the possible nuclear reactions was performed in order to plan the decommissioning activities. During the cyclotron dismantling, the activities of the cyclotron components, concrete wall and floor samples were measured. Residual activities were analyzed by means of an HPGe detector and Liquid Scintillation Counting, and compared with simulation data. Dosimetry of the staff involved in the decommissioning procedure was monitored by individual TL dosimeters and/or digital dosimeter. The cyclotron component analysis confirmed the presence of gamma and pure beta emitters,22Na,54Mn,60Co,65Zn,207Bi,55Fe,63Ni at different values of specific activity, depending on the positioning of the sample point and on the alloy of the sampled part. In these components the presence of gamma and pure beta emitters was measured five years after the shutdown at levels far above clearance limits as defined by the "Recommended radiological protection criteria for the recycling of metals from the dismantling of nuclear installations" (RP89) guidelines. The simulation, carried out by FLUKA Code (version 2020.0.5) on the cyclotron components, provided good agreement with measurements, with a maximum discrepancy of the same order as the uncertainties. Four engineers of the cyclotron maintenance staff were involved in the dismounting of the hottest components and rigging of the cyclotron in the deposit six months after shutdown and two engineers were involved during the drilling phase 3.5 years after shutdown. The measured dose from external exposure of the involved staff was lower than 100 μSv person-1during the first phase and lower than 20 μSv person-1during the final drilling phase. Measured doses from intake were negligible. In conclusion, the decommissioning of the 18 MeV cyclotron does not represent a risk for the involved staff, but, due to the presence of long-lived radioisotopes, the cyclotron components are to be treated as Low Level Radioactive Waste, and stored in an authorized storage area for at least 25 years after shutdown.

Decommissioning procedure and induced activation levels, calculations and measurements in an 18 MeV Medical Cyclotron / R. Calandrino, S. Manenti, F.M. GROPPI GARLANDINI, F. Broggi, C. Bergamaschi, A. Ferrari, S. Manenti, M. Nizzi, A. Loria, A. del Vecchio. - In: JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION. - ISSN 0952-4746. - 41:4(2021), pp. 1344-1365. [10.1088/1361-6498/ac28f0]

Decommissioning procedure and induced activation levels, calculations and measurements in an 18 MeV Medical Cyclotron

S. Manenti
Co-primo
;
F.M. GROPPI GARLANDINI;A. Loria
Penultimo
;
2021

Abstract

The present article describes the decommissioning of a self-shielded 18 MeV medical cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 after 14 years of operation. A Monte Carlo simulation of the possible nuclear reactions was performed in order to plan the decommissioning activities. During the cyclotron dismantling, the activities of the cyclotron components, concrete wall and floor samples were measured. Residual activities were analyzed by means of an HPGe detector and Liquid Scintillation Counting, and compared with simulation data. Dosimetry of the staff involved in the decommissioning procedure was monitored by individual TL dosimeters and/or digital dosimeter. The cyclotron component analysis confirmed the presence of gamma and pure beta emitters,22Na,54Mn,60Co,65Zn,207Bi,55Fe,63Ni at different values of specific activity, depending on the positioning of the sample point and on the alloy of the sampled part. In these components the presence of gamma and pure beta emitters was measured five years after the shutdown at levels far above clearance limits as defined by the "Recommended radiological protection criteria for the recycling of metals from the dismantling of nuclear installations" (RP89) guidelines. The simulation, carried out by FLUKA Code (version 2020.0.5) on the cyclotron components, provided good agreement with measurements, with a maximum discrepancy of the same order as the uncertainties. Four engineers of the cyclotron maintenance staff were involved in the dismounting of the hottest components and rigging of the cyclotron in the deposit six months after shutdown and two engineers were involved during the drilling phase 3.5 years after shutdown. The measured dose from external exposure of the involved staff was lower than 100 μSv person-1during the first phase and lower than 20 μSv person-1during the final drilling phase. Measured doses from intake were negligible. In conclusion, the decommissioning of the 18 MeV cyclotron does not represent a risk for the involved staff, but, due to the presence of long-lived radioisotopes, the cyclotron components are to be treated as Low Level Radioactive Waste, and stored in an authorized storage area for at least 25 years after shutdown.
cyclotron; dosimetry; exposure; occupational; waste management
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
Settore ING-IND/10 - Fisica Tecnica Industriale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/869924
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