The nuclear RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms abnormal cytoplasmic aggregates in the brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients and several molecular mechanisms promoting TDP-43 cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation have been proposed, including defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport, stress granules (SG) disassembly and post-translational modifications (PTM). SUMOylation is a PTM which regulates a variety of cellular processes and, similarly to ubiquitination, targets lysine residues. To investigate the possible regulatory effects of SUMOylation on TDP-43 activity and trafficking, we first assessed that TDP-43 is SUMO-conjugated in the nuclear compartment both covalently and non-covalently in the RRM1 domain at the predicted lysine 136 and SUMO-interacting motif (SIM, 106–110 residues), respectively. By using the SUMO-mutant TDP-43 K136R protein, we demonstrated that SUMOylation modifies TDP-43 splicing activity, specifically exon skipping, and influences its sub-cellular localization and recruitment to SG after oxidative stress. When promoting deSUMOylation by SENP1 enzyme over-expression or by treatment with the cell-permeable SENP1 peptide TS-1, the cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 increased, depending on its SUMOylation. Moreover, deSUMOylation by TS-1 peptide favoured the formation of small cytoplasmic aggregates of the C-terminal TDP-43 fragment p35, still containing the SUMO lysine target 136, but had no effect on the already formed p25 aggregates. Our data suggest that TDP-43 can be post-translationally modified by SUMOylation which may regulate its splicing function and trafficking, indicating a novel and druggable mechanism to explore as its dysregulation may lead to TDP-43 pathological aggregation in ALS and FTD.

SUMOylation regulates TDP-43 splicing activity and nucleocytoplasmic distribution / A.M. Maraschi, V. Gumina, J. Dragotto, C. Colombrita, M. Mompean, E. Buratti, V. Silani, M. Feligioni, A. Ratti. - In: MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0893-7648. - (2021). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1007/s12035-021-02505-8]

SUMOylation regulates TDP-43 splicing activity and nucleocytoplasmic distribution

V. Gumina;C. Colombrita;V. Silani;A. Ratti
2021

Abstract

The nuclear RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms abnormal cytoplasmic aggregates in the brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients and several molecular mechanisms promoting TDP-43 cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation have been proposed, including defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport, stress granules (SG) disassembly and post-translational modifications (PTM). SUMOylation is a PTM which regulates a variety of cellular processes and, similarly to ubiquitination, targets lysine residues. To investigate the possible regulatory effects of SUMOylation on TDP-43 activity and trafficking, we first assessed that TDP-43 is SUMO-conjugated in the nuclear compartment both covalently and non-covalently in the RRM1 domain at the predicted lysine 136 and SUMO-interacting motif (SIM, 106–110 residues), respectively. By using the SUMO-mutant TDP-43 K136R protein, we demonstrated that SUMOylation modifies TDP-43 splicing activity, specifically exon skipping, and influences its sub-cellular localization and recruitment to SG after oxidative stress. When promoting deSUMOylation by SENP1 enzyme over-expression or by treatment with the cell-permeable SENP1 peptide TS-1, the cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 increased, depending on its SUMOylation. Moreover, deSUMOylation by TS-1 peptide favoured the formation of small cytoplasmic aggregates of the C-terminal TDP-43 fragment p35, still containing the SUMO lysine target 136, but had no effect on the already formed p25 aggregates. Our data suggest that TDP-43 can be post-translationally modified by SUMOylation which may regulate its splicing function and trafficking, indicating a novel and druggable mechanism to explore as its dysregulation may lead to TDP-43 pathological aggregation in ALS and FTD.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; nucleocytoplasmic transport; splicing; SUMOylation; TDP-43
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
Settore BIO/12 - Biochimica Clinica e Biologia Molecolare Clinica
14-ago-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/867458
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