BACKGROUND: Studies of the malaria parasites infecting various non-human primates (NHPs) have increased our understanding of the origin, biology and pathogenesis of human Plasmodium parasites.This review considers the major discoveries concerning NHP malaria parasites, highlights their relationships with human malaria and considers the impact that this may have on attempts to eradicate the disease. RESULTS: The first description of NHP malaria parasites dates back to the early 20th century. Subsequently, experimental and fortuitous findings indicating that some NHP malaria parasites can be transmitted to humans have raised concerns about the possible impact of a zoonotic malaria reservoir on efforts to control human malaria.Advances in molecular techniques over the last 15 years have contributed greatly to our knowledge of the existence and geographical distribution of numerous Plasmodium species infecting NHPs, and extended our understanding of their close phylogenetic relationships with human malaria parasites. The clinical application of such techniques has also made it possible to document ongoing spillovers of NHP malaria parasites (Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. simium, P. brasilianum) in humans living in or near the forests of Asia and South America, thus confirming that zoonotic malaria can undermine efforts to eradicate human malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing molecular research supports the prophetic intuition of the pioneers of modern malariology who saw zoonotic malaria as a potential obstacle to the full success of malaria eradication programmes. It is, therefore, important to continue surveillance and research based on one-health approaches in order to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between NHPs, mosquito vectors and humans during a period of ongoing changes in the climate and the use of land, monitor the evolution of zoonotic malaria, identify the populations most at risk and implement appropriate preventive strategies.

Non-human primate and human malaria: past, present and future / S. Antinori, C. Bonazzetti, A. Giacomelli, M. Corbellino, M. Galli, C. Parravicini, A.L. Ridolfo. - In: JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1708-8305. - 28:5(2021 Jul), pp. 1-14. [10.1093/jtm/taab036]

Non-human primate and human malaria: past, present and future

S. Antinori
Primo
;
C. Bonazzetti;A. Giacomelli;M. Galli;
2021-07

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of the malaria parasites infecting various non-human primates (NHPs) have increased our understanding of the origin, biology and pathogenesis of human Plasmodium parasites.This review considers the major discoveries concerning NHP malaria parasites, highlights their relationships with human malaria and considers the impact that this may have on attempts to eradicate the disease. RESULTS: The first description of NHP malaria parasites dates back to the early 20th century. Subsequently, experimental and fortuitous findings indicating that some NHP malaria parasites can be transmitted to humans have raised concerns about the possible impact of a zoonotic malaria reservoir on efforts to control human malaria.Advances in molecular techniques over the last 15 years have contributed greatly to our knowledge of the existence and geographical distribution of numerous Plasmodium species infecting NHPs, and extended our understanding of their close phylogenetic relationships with human malaria parasites. The clinical application of such techniques has also made it possible to document ongoing spillovers of NHP malaria parasites (Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. simium, P. brasilianum) in humans living in or near the forests of Asia and South America, thus confirming that zoonotic malaria can undermine efforts to eradicate human malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing molecular research supports the prophetic intuition of the pioneers of modern malariology who saw zoonotic malaria as a potential obstacle to the full success of malaria eradication programmes. It is, therefore, important to continue surveillance and research based on one-health approaches in order to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between NHPs, mosquito vectors and humans during a period of ongoing changes in the climate and the use of land, monitor the evolution of zoonotic malaria, identify the populations most at risk and implement appropriate preventive strategies.
Plasmodium brasilianum; Plasmodium cynomolgi; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium knowlesi; Plasmodium simium; Plasmodium vivax-like; zoonotic malaria; Animals; Humans; Mosquito Vectors; Phylogeny; Primates; Malaria; Plasmodium
Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/865267
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