Obesity is a condition characterized by uncontrolled expansion of adipose tissue mass resulting in pathological weight gain. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as crucial players in epigenetic regulation of adipocyte metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that selective inhibition of class I HDACs improves white adipocyte functionality and promotes the browning phenotype of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) C3H/10T1/2 differentiated to adipocytes. These effects were also observed in db/db and diet induced obesity mouse models and in mice with adipose-selective inactivation of HDAC3, a member of class I HDACs. The molecular basis of class I HDACs action in adipose tissue is not deeply characterized and it is not known whether the effects of their inhibition are exerted on adipocyte precursors or mature adipocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the molecular mechanism of class I HDAC action in adipocytes by evaluating the effects of HDAC3-specific silencing at different stages of differentiation. HDAC3 was silenced in C3H/10T1/2 MSCs at different stages of differentiation to adipocytes. shRNA targeting HDAC3 was used to generate the knock-down model. Proper HDAC3 silencing was assessed by measuring both mRNA and protein levels of mouse HDAC3 via qPCR and western blot, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA content and gene expression were quantified via qPCR. HDAC3 silencing at the beginning of differentiation enhanced adipocyte functionality by amplifying the expression of genes regulating differentiation, oxidative metabolism, browning and mitochondrial activity, starting from 72 h after induction of differentiation and silencing. Insulin signaling was enhanced as demonstrated by increased AKT phosphorylation following HDAC3 silencing. Mitochondrial content/density did not change, while the increased expression of the transcriptional co-activator Ppargc1b suggests the observed phenotype was related to enhanced mitochondrial activity, which was confirmed by increased maximal respiration and proton leak linked to reduced coupling efficiency. Moreover, the expression of pro-inflammatory markers increased with HDAC3 early silencing. To the contrary, no differences in terms of gene expression were found when HDAC3 silencing occurred in terminally differentiated adipocyte. Our data demonstrated that early epigenetic events mediated by class I HDAC inhibition/silencing are crucial to commit adipocyte precursors towards the above-mentioned metabolic phenotype. Moreover, our data suggest that these effects are exerted on adipocyte precursors.

Histone deacetylase 3 regulates adipocyte phenotype at early stages of differentiation / D. Cricri', L. Coppi, S. Pedretti, N. Mitro, D. Caruso, E.S.R. De Fabiani, M. Crestani. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 22:17(2021 Aug 27), pp. 9300.1-9300.20. [10.3390/ijms22179300]

Histone deacetylase 3 regulates adipocyte phenotype at early stages of differentiation

Dalma Cricrí;Lara Coppi;Silvia Pedretti;Nico Mitro;Donatella Caruso;Emma De Fabiani;Maurizio Crestani
2021-08-27

Abstract

Obesity is a condition characterized by uncontrolled expansion of adipose tissue mass resulting in pathological weight gain. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as crucial players in epigenetic regulation of adipocyte metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that selective inhibition of class I HDACs improves white adipocyte functionality and promotes the browning phenotype of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) C3H/10T1/2 differentiated to adipocytes. These effects were also observed in db/db and diet induced obesity mouse models and in mice with adipose-selective inactivation of HDAC3, a member of class I HDACs. The molecular basis of class I HDACs action in adipose tissue is not deeply characterized and it is not known whether the effects of their inhibition are exerted on adipocyte precursors or mature adipocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the molecular mechanism of class I HDAC action in adipocytes by evaluating the effects of HDAC3-specific silencing at different stages of differentiation. HDAC3 was silenced in C3H/10T1/2 MSCs at different stages of differentiation to adipocytes. shRNA targeting HDAC3 was used to generate the knock-down model. Proper HDAC3 silencing was assessed by measuring both mRNA and protein levels of mouse HDAC3 via qPCR and western blot, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA content and gene expression were quantified via qPCR. HDAC3 silencing at the beginning of differentiation enhanced adipocyte functionality by amplifying the expression of genes regulating differentiation, oxidative metabolism, browning and mitochondrial activity, starting from 72 h after induction of differentiation and silencing. Insulin signaling was enhanced as demonstrated by increased AKT phosphorylation following HDAC3 silencing. Mitochondrial content/density did not change, while the increased expression of the transcriptional co-activator Ppargc1b suggests the observed phenotype was related to enhanced mitochondrial activity, which was confirmed by increased maximal respiration and proton leak linked to reduced coupling efficiency. Moreover, the expression of pro-inflammatory markers increased with HDAC3 early silencing. To the contrary, no differences in terms of gene expression were found when HDAC3 silencing occurred in terminally differentiated adipocyte. Our data demonstrated that early epigenetic events mediated by class I HDAC inhibition/silencing are crucial to commit adipocyte precursors towards the above-mentioned metabolic phenotype. Moreover, our data suggest that these effects are exerted on adipocyte precursors.
epigenetics; obesity; HDAC3; adipocytes; differentiation; metabolism; inflammation
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare
7PQ_MC13MCRES_M - Control of metabolic and inflammatory pathways by nuclear receptor - CRESTANI, MAURIZIO - 7PQ_MC - 7 Programma Quadro_Marie Curie ITN_IEF_IOF_IIF_IAPP - 2013
CAR_RIC16MCRES_M - Histone deacetylase 3 in adipose tissue: a link between immuno-metabolic dysfunctions and obesity and type 2 diabetes - CRESTANI, MAURIZIO - CAR_RIC - Bandi Fondazione Cariplo - 2016
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/863893
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