Nanoparticles are promising mediators to enable nasal systemic and brain delivery of active compounds. However, the possibility of reaching therapeutically relevant levels of exogenous molecules in the body is strongly reliant on the ability of the nanoparticles to overcome biological barriers. In this work, three paradigmatic nanoformulations vehiculating the poorly soluble model drug simvastatin were addressed: (i) hybrid lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LCNs), (ii) polymeric poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules stabilized with the nonionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (PCL_P80), and (iii) polymeric poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules stabilized with a polysaccharide-based surfactant, i.e., sodium caproyl hyaluronate (PCL_SCH). The three nanosystems were investigated for their physicochemical and structural properties and for their impact on the biopharmaceutical aspects critical for nasal and nose-to-brain delivery: biocompatibility, drug release, mucoadhesion, and permeation across the nasal mucosa. All three nanoformulations were highly reproducible, with small particle size (∼200 nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index (PI) < 0.2), and high drug encapsulation efficiency (>97%). Nanoparticle composition, surface charge, and internal structure (multilayered, core-shell or raspberry-like, as assessed by small-angle neutron scattering, SANS) were demonstrated to have an impact on both the drug-release profile and, strikingly, its behavior at the biological interface. The interaction with the mucus layer and the kinetics and extent of transport of the drug across the excised animal nasal epithelium were modulated by nanoparticle structure and surface. In fact, all of the produced nanoparticles improved simvastatin transport across the epithelial barrier of the nasal cavity as compared to a traditional formulation. Interestingly, however, the permeation enhancement was achieved via two distinct pathways: (a) enhanced mucoadhesion for hybrid LCN accompanied by fast mucosal permeation of the model drug, or (b) mucopenetration and an improved uptake and potential transport of whole PCL_P80 and PCL_SCH nanocapsules with delayed boost of permeation across the nasal mucosa. The correlation between nanoparticle structure and its biopharmaceutical properties appears to be a pivotal point for the development of novel platforms suitable for systemic and brain delivery of pharmaceutical compounds via intranasal administration.

Structure and Fate of Nanoparticles Designed for the Nasal Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs / A. Rocha Clementino, G. Pellegrini, S. Banella, G. Colombo, C. Laura, F. Sonvico, E. Del Favero. - In: MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 1543-8384. - 18:8(2021), pp. 3132-3146. [10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00366]

Structure and Fate of Nanoparticles Designed for the Nasal Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

Laura Cantù;Elena Del Favero
2021

Abstract

Nanoparticles are promising mediators to enable nasal systemic and brain delivery of active compounds. However, the possibility of reaching therapeutically relevant levels of exogenous molecules in the body is strongly reliant on the ability of the nanoparticles to overcome biological barriers. In this work, three paradigmatic nanoformulations vehiculating the poorly soluble model drug simvastatin were addressed: (i) hybrid lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LCNs), (ii) polymeric poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules stabilized with the nonionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (PCL_P80), and (iii) polymeric poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules stabilized with a polysaccharide-based surfactant, i.e., sodium caproyl hyaluronate (PCL_SCH). The three nanosystems were investigated for their physicochemical and structural properties and for their impact on the biopharmaceutical aspects critical for nasal and nose-to-brain delivery: biocompatibility, drug release, mucoadhesion, and permeation across the nasal mucosa. All three nanoformulations were highly reproducible, with small particle size (∼200 nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index (PI) < 0.2), and high drug encapsulation efficiency (>97%). Nanoparticle composition, surface charge, and internal structure (multilayered, core-shell or raspberry-like, as assessed by small-angle neutron scattering, SANS) were demonstrated to have an impact on both the drug-release profile and, strikingly, its behavior at the biological interface. The interaction with the mucus layer and the kinetics and extent of transport of the drug across the excised animal nasal epithelium were modulated by nanoparticle structure and surface. In fact, all of the produced nanoparticles improved simvastatin transport across the epithelial barrier of the nasal cavity as compared to a traditional formulation. Interestingly, however, the permeation enhancement was achieved via two distinct pathways: (a) enhanced mucoadhesion for hybrid LCN accompanied by fast mucosal permeation of the model drug, or (b) mucopenetration and an improved uptake and potential transport of whole PCL_P80 and PCL_SCH nanocapsules with delayed boost of permeation across the nasal mucosa. The correlation between nanoparticle structure and its biopharmaceutical properties appears to be a pivotal point for the development of novel platforms suitable for systemic and brain delivery of pharmaceutical compounds via intranasal administration.
chitosan; nanomedicines; nose-to-brain delivery; poly-ϵ-caprolactone; SANS; sodium caproyl hyaluronate
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
Settore CHIM/09 - Farmaceutico Tecnologico Applicativo
MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/859737
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