This paper takes up the reflections made during a conference dedicated to the challenges of property in the 21st century, where I was asked to reflect on the possible emergence of the category of “vital goods”. In order to define its possible content, I started from Article 25 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which identifies certain needs whose satisfaction is vital to ensure dignity. Some of these needs can only be met by goods, which generate the utilities necessary to satisfy them, while others require the provision of services. Once the notion of vital goods has been circumscribed only to the former, it has been noted that the satisfaction of fundamental needs by means of access to the utilities generated by goods can be made effective by means of a plurality of legal techniques that the Italian and French doctrine has framed by recourse to the two cartesian axes of attribution and distribution and placing the different solutions in relation to the mode of being of the goods. Some examples taken from legislation and case law on water and housing have made it possible to verify how the vital nature of certain goods has consequences on the regulation of the relationships that are grafted onto these goods. Consideration was also given to the rules protecting those who already own vital goods against their loss; this protection constitutes a complementary aspect of the legal status of vital goods. It has been concluded that the legislator has intervened with different techniques, and with a discipline that is certainly scattered but which finds its own axis of order in the "vital" character of certain goods.

Les biens vitaux dans le droit italien / B. Vari (THEMES & COMMENTAIRES). - In: La Propriété au 21e siècle. Un modèle ancestral toujours adapté aux grands enjeux de notre environnement ?, / [a cura di] V. Malabat, A. Zabalza. - Prima edizione. - [s.l] : Dalloz, 2021. - ISBN 978-2-247-20409-0. - pp. 47-60

Les biens vitaux dans le droit italien

B. Vari
2021

Abstract

This paper takes up the reflections made during a conference dedicated to the challenges of property in the 21st century, where I was asked to reflect on the possible emergence of the category of “vital goods”. In order to define its possible content, I started from Article 25 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which identifies certain needs whose satisfaction is vital to ensure dignity. Some of these needs can only be met by goods, which generate the utilities necessary to satisfy them, while others require the provision of services. Once the notion of vital goods has been circumscribed only to the former, it has been noted that the satisfaction of fundamental needs by means of access to the utilities generated by goods can be made effective by means of a plurality of legal techniques that the Italian and French doctrine has framed by recourse to the two cartesian axes of attribution and distribution and placing the different solutions in relation to the mode of being of the goods. Some examples taken from legislation and case law on water and housing have made it possible to verify how the vital nature of certain goods has consequences on the regulation of the relationships that are grafted onto these goods. Consideration was also given to the rules protecting those who already own vital goods against their loss; this protection constitutes a complementary aspect of the legal status of vital goods. It has been concluded that the legislator has intervened with different techniques, and with a discipline that is certainly scattered but which finds its own axis of order in the "vital" character of certain goods.
Il n’existe pas encore en Italie une véritable catégorie juridique des biens vitaux. Pour en définir le possible contenu je suis donc parti de l’art. 25 de la Déclaration des droits de l’homme des Nations Unies, qui identifie certains besoins dont la satisfaction est vitale pour assurer une vie digne, transformant ces besoins en droits. Certains de ces besoins ne peuvent être satisfaits que par des biens, alors que d’autres requièrent la fourniture de services ou de prestations. Un choix de type classificateur s’impose donc: soit la notion de biens vitaux s’élargie a tous ce qui est nécessaire pour satisfaire les besoins fondamentaux, soit on considère que la catégorie de biens vitaux correspond seulement à une partie des moyens permettant de les satisfaire. J’ai embrassé la seconde option. Après avoir évoqué les réflexions les plus récentes de la doctrine italienne sur le droit des biens, j’ai fait une mention rapide à la catégorie de biens communs élaborée par la Commission Rodotà. Quelques exemples tirés de la législation et de la jurisprudence italiennes concernant le bien " eau potable" et le bien " logement ", ont permis de voir comment le caractère " vital " de certains biens a des conséquences sur leur statut et sur la discipline des relations qui y sont rattachées. A côté des règles qui facilitent l'accès aux biens vitaux, il existe aussi des règles qui protègent ceux qui les possèdent déjà contre leur perte (voir la discipline sur l’insaisissabilité); cette protection constitue un aspect complémentaire du statut juridique des bien vitaux. D'après ce qui a été observé, il semble possible d'affirmer que le législateur est intervenu avec une discipline, certes dispersée, mais qui trouve dans le caractère vital de certains biens son axe d'ordre.
Biens vitaux; propriété; beni vitali
Settore IUS/01 - Diritto Privato
Settore IUS/02 - Diritto Privato Comparato
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/859652
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