The thesisanalysesthepolitical participation to the Concordia Association (Manshūkoku Kyōwakai, 1932-1945) in rural society during the Manchukuo regime, observing the case of Fŭshùn County (today part of Liáoníng Province). Kyōwakai was a multiethnic state organization leaded by the Japanese occupants. Admission to Kyōwakaiwas not compulsory and charged annually. The specific aim of this researchisto qualifythe participation of the peasants to the colonial organization. Toaddress this aim, I have considered on one handthe formation of political demand in rural society, studied in thebroader context of theinterrupted process of state building in China,and onthe other hand how thecolonialistorganization responded to it.In this regard,special attention is given tothe practice of arbitration performed by Kyōwakaiin the villages.Mythesishas one general implication. It is a fact that the Japanese reached in short time a relatively tightterritorial control in Manchuria.This research suggests that the activity of Kyōwakaiwas instrumental in the processof local society domination.The main sources of thisstudy arereportsand documentationin Japaneseproduced byKyōwakaiand South Manchurian Railway Company.Thethesis is composed by three parts and five chapters. In the first part I briefly discussthe socioeconomic context. In the first chapter I study the implementation of land tax reform and its effects on agricultural land utilization in the first thirty years of the Twentieth Century. The legal introduction of private property rights by the Reform contrasted with the low corroboration quality of the property documentation used by thepeasants, generating a great number of conflicts concerning land property. In the second chapter I consider the evolution of the family in modern Manchuria. In particular, I provide evidence on the process of simplification of family structure from 1870 to 1939, which ended in the diffusion of simple familystructure and the decline of the extended family.Consequence of this process was firstly the formation of a class of landed farmers that demanded a clearerproperty rights instead of the traditional clan-based communal property of land. Secondly, the simplification of the family groups eroded the traditional power structure in the villages. The local elites, often represented by the head of the dominant clans, could not exert anymore their authority in the village on the base of kinship relationship and found in the collaboration to Kyōwakaia useful means to reproduce the village power relations. In the second part (third and fourth chapter) I turn to the process of diffusion of Concordia Association in Fŭshùn County rural area. In the third chapter I discuss quantitative data concerning subscription of the peasants to the organization in the Thirties. Local cadres of Concordia association distributed political and economic resources to the members by clientelary networks monopolized by local elites. Land dispute arbitration was one of the different services dispensed. In the fourth chapter I examine origins and development of the conflict between the Chinese landowners and the Korean renters working in the local rice fields. The mediation between the two communities enacted by the Concordia Association brought to the formation of a water management cooperative association, which was the first experiment of local management of water resources in modern Manchuria.In the last section I consider comparatively the outstanding performance ofthe local cadre of Concordia Association in Fŭshùn County, analyzing it together with the activities of the local cadres in three other Counties. I demonstrate that the economic and operative collaboration of Fŭshùn Carbon Industry to Kyōwakaiin Fŭshùn enabled the organization to secure the resources necessary to mobilize members. I detect the same pattern of membership based on materialistic interest in the other areas observed.

満州国協和会による地域支配と農民社会 : 土地問題・恩顧関係・開墾過程の変動 The Concordia Association of Manchukuo and the Peasant Society in the northeast China: Land, Clientelism, and Developmen / F. Dornetti. - [s.l] : Keio University, 2015 Jun 11.

満州国協和会による地域支配と農民社会 : 土地問題・恩顧関係・開墾過程の変動 The Concordia Association of Manchukuo and the Peasant Society in the northeast China: Land, Clientelism, and Developmen

F. Dornetti
2015-06-11

Abstract

The thesisanalysesthepolitical participation to the Concordia Association (Manshūkoku Kyōwakai, 1932-1945) in rural society during the Manchukuo regime, observing the case of Fŭshùn County (today part of Liáoníng Province). Kyōwakai was a multiethnic state organization leaded by the Japanese occupants. Admission to Kyōwakaiwas not compulsory and charged annually. The specific aim of this researchisto qualifythe participation of the peasants to the colonial organization. Toaddress this aim, I have considered on one handthe formation of political demand in rural society, studied in thebroader context of theinterrupted process of state building in China,and onthe other hand how thecolonialistorganization responded to it.In this regard,special attention is given tothe practice of arbitration performed by Kyōwakaiin the villages.Mythesishas one general implication. It is a fact that the Japanese reached in short time a relatively tightterritorial control in Manchuria.This research suggests that the activity of Kyōwakaiwas instrumental in the processof local society domination.The main sources of thisstudy arereportsand documentationin Japaneseproduced byKyōwakaiand South Manchurian Railway Company.Thethesis is composed by three parts and five chapters. In the first part I briefly discussthe socioeconomic context. In the first chapter I study the implementation of land tax reform and its effects on agricultural land utilization in the first thirty years of the Twentieth Century. The legal introduction of private property rights by the Reform contrasted with the low corroboration quality of the property documentation used by thepeasants, generating a great number of conflicts concerning land property. In the second chapter I consider the evolution of the family in modern Manchuria. In particular, I provide evidence on the process of simplification of family structure from 1870 to 1939, which ended in the diffusion of simple familystructure and the decline of the extended family.Consequence of this process was firstly the formation of a class of landed farmers that demanded a clearerproperty rights instead of the traditional clan-based communal property of land. Secondly, the simplification of the family groups eroded the traditional power structure in the villages. The local elites, often represented by the head of the dominant clans, could not exert anymore their authority in the village on the base of kinship relationship and found in the collaboration to Kyōwakaia useful means to reproduce the village power relations. In the second part (third and fourth chapter) I turn to the process of diffusion of Concordia Association in Fŭshùn County rural area. In the third chapter I discuss quantitative data concerning subscription of the peasants to the organization in the Thirties. Local cadres of Concordia association distributed political and economic resources to the members by clientelary networks monopolized by local elites. Land dispute arbitration was one of the different services dispensed. In the fourth chapter I examine origins and development of the conflict between the Chinese landowners and the Korean renters working in the local rice fields. The mediation between the two communities enacted by the Concordia Association brought to the formation of a water management cooperative association, which was the first experiment of local management of water resources in modern Manchuria.In the last section I consider comparatively the outstanding performance ofthe local cadre of Concordia Association in Fŭshùn County, analyzing it together with the activities of the local cadres in three other Counties. I demonstrate that the economic and operative collaboration of Fŭshùn Carbon Industry to Kyōwakaiin Fŭshùn enabled the organization to secure the resources necessary to mobilize members. I detect the same pattern of membership based on materialistic interest in the other areas observed.
Settore SPS/14 - Storia e Istituzioni Dell'Asia
https://iss.ndl.go.jp/books/R100000002-I027115667-00?ar=4e1f&locale=en
Working Paper
満州国協和会による地域支配と農民社会 : 土地問題・恩顧関係・開墾過程の変動 The Concordia Association of Manchukuo and the Peasant Society in the northeast China: Land, Clientelism, and Developmen / F. Dornetti. - [s.l] : Keio University, 2015 Jun 11.
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