Water pollution by emerging contaminants has become a major source of concern and a priority for society and public authorities. Emerging contaminants are a group of natural and synthetic chemicals and biological agents that are not routinely monitored or regulated in the environment and may have known or suspected adverse effects on the environment and human health. The list of these substances is particularly long and includes pharmaceuticals, personal care products and cosmetics, pesticides, surfactants, industrial products and additives, nanoparticles and nanomaterials, and pathogens. Many emerging contaminants are released continuously into the environment and can cause chronic toxicity even at low concentrations, endocrine disruption in humans and aquatic life, and the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. It is therefore necessary to mobilize efforts to protect human health and biodiversity. Two of the main sources of emerging contaminants are wastewater treatment discharges and agricultural practices. However, conventional wastewater treatment plants have not been designed to remove such contaminants. It is therefore important to develop effective treatment methods capable of eliminating the parent emerging molecules and their metabolites. This is a difficult and challenging task because most of emerging contaminants are recalcitrant substances. The methods must also target not only water chemicals but also water microbiols in order to reduce and eliminate the toxicity and impact of the treated wastewater. During the past two decades, several physical, chemical and biological technologies have been proposed for emerging contaminant removal. Each technology has its own advantages and constraints not only in terms of cost, but also in terms of efficiency, feasibility, and environmental impact. However, among the various treatment processes currently cited for wastewater treatment, only few are commonly employed by the industrial sector for technological and economic reasons. Extensive research on this topic highlights the growing interest of scientists in developing treatment systems that are increasingly effective in removing mixtures of trace pollutants, simple to implement from a technological point of view, economically viable and environmentally friendly, with little or no impact on the environment. The objective of this chapter is to present the recent state of knowledge on the advanced treatments proposed for the removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater when they are present in trace amounts in wastewater. After general considerations on wastewater treatment plant, the first part is focused on adsorption-oriented processes using conventional (activated carbon, clays) or non-conventional (cyclodextrin polymers, metal-organic frameworks, molecularly imprinted polymers, chitosan, nanocellulose) adsorbents. Biosorbents such as cyclodextrin bead polymers have great potential in environmental applications although they are still at the laboratory study stage. The second part presents examples of biological-based technologies for the degradation and elimination of emerging contaminants. Selected biological approaches include constructed wetlands, biomembrane reactors, strategies based on the use of algae, fungi and bacteria, and enzymatic degradation. The third part briefly presents the membrane filtration strategy that is already used as a tertiary treatment. The final part is focused on advanced oxidation processes that also represent one of the most promising strategies because of their simplicity and efficiency.

Remediation of Emerging Contaminants / N. Morin-Crini, E. Lichtfouse, M. Fourmentin, A. Rita Lado Ribeiro, C. Noutsopoulos, F. Mapelli, É. Fenyvesi, M. Gurgel Adeodato Vieira, L.A. Picos-Corrales, J. Carlos Moreno-Piraján, L. Giraldo, T. Sohajda, M. Mahmudul Huq, J. Soltan, G. Torri, M. Magureanu, C. Bradu, G. Crini (ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD). - In: Emerging Contaminants. 2: Remediation / [a cura di] N. Morin-Crini, E. Lichtfouse, G. Crini. - [s.l] : Springer, 2021. - ISBN 9783030690892. - pp. 1-106 [10.1007/978-3-030-69090-8_1]

Remediation of Emerging Contaminants

F. Mapelli;
2021

Abstract

Water pollution by emerging contaminants has become a major source of concern and a priority for society and public authorities. Emerging contaminants are a group of natural and synthetic chemicals and biological agents that are not routinely monitored or regulated in the environment and may have known or suspected adverse effects on the environment and human health. The list of these substances is particularly long and includes pharmaceuticals, personal care products and cosmetics, pesticides, surfactants, industrial products and additives, nanoparticles and nanomaterials, and pathogens. Many emerging contaminants are released continuously into the environment and can cause chronic toxicity even at low concentrations, endocrine disruption in humans and aquatic life, and the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. It is therefore necessary to mobilize efforts to protect human health and biodiversity. Two of the main sources of emerging contaminants are wastewater treatment discharges and agricultural practices. However, conventional wastewater treatment plants have not been designed to remove such contaminants. It is therefore important to develop effective treatment methods capable of eliminating the parent emerging molecules and their metabolites. This is a difficult and challenging task because most of emerging contaminants are recalcitrant substances. The methods must also target not only water chemicals but also water microbiols in order to reduce and eliminate the toxicity and impact of the treated wastewater. During the past two decades, several physical, chemical and biological technologies have been proposed for emerging contaminant removal. Each technology has its own advantages and constraints not only in terms of cost, but also in terms of efficiency, feasibility, and environmental impact. However, among the various treatment processes currently cited for wastewater treatment, only few are commonly employed by the industrial sector for technological and economic reasons. Extensive research on this topic highlights the growing interest of scientists in developing treatment systems that are increasingly effective in removing mixtures of trace pollutants, simple to implement from a technological point of view, economically viable and environmentally friendly, with little or no impact on the environment. The objective of this chapter is to present the recent state of knowledge on the advanced treatments proposed for the removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater when they are present in trace amounts in wastewater. After general considerations on wastewater treatment plant, the first part is focused on adsorption-oriented processes using conventional (activated carbon, clays) or non-conventional (cyclodextrin polymers, metal-organic frameworks, molecularly imprinted polymers, chitosan, nanocellulose) adsorbents. Biosorbents such as cyclodextrin bead polymers have great potential in environmental applications although they are still at the laboratory study stage. The second part presents examples of biological-based technologies for the degradation and elimination of emerging contaminants. Selected biological approaches include constructed wetlands, biomembrane reactors, strategies based on the use of algae, fungi and bacteria, and enzymatic degradation. The third part briefly presents the membrane filtration strategy that is already used as a tertiary treatment. The final part is focused on advanced oxidation processes that also represent one of the most promising strategies because of their simplicity and efficiency.
Emerging contaminants; Substances of global concern; Pharmaceuticals; Personal care products; Pesticides; Water pollution; Aquatic compartments; Wastewater treatment plants; Remediation; Bioremediation; Conventional removal technologies; Advanced treatments; Adsorption; Biosorption; Cyclodextrin polymers; Constructed wetlands; Membrane bioreactor technology; Membrane filtration; Disinfection; Ozonation; Advanced oxidation processes; Catalytic ozonation; Non-thermal plasma
Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/857918
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