Context: GH deficiency (GHD) of the adult is a clinical condition characterized by the presence of several traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors that can significantly increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is still an open issue whether GH replacement is able not only to improve cardiovascular risk factors but also to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Evidence Acquisition: The major source of data acquisition included PubMed research strategies. Original articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and included relevant citations were screened. Evidence Synthesis: In untreated GHD, cardiovascular risk is increased due to abnormal lipid profile (increased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased triglycerides, and reduced highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol) and impaired glucose metabolism. Emerging cardiovascular risk factors/markers such as proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, and adipokines are also increased in GHD patients. Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have also been reported in GHD. GH treatment has been shown to improve both traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors and markers. However, evidence on the effects of GH replacement on cardiovascular events and mortality is limited. Conclusion: The GHD population may be considered at high cardiovascular risk, and GH substitution may be expected to bring an added value to patients with hypopituitarism in terms of cardiovascular protection. However, there is too limited evidence (rarely coming from randomized and controlled studies) to recommend GH treatment based on the cardiovascular status of the patients. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99: 18-29, 2014).
Cardiovascular risk in adult patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and following substitution with GH-An update / C. Gazzaruso, M. Gola, I. Karamouzis, R. Giubbini, A. Giustina. - In: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM. - ISSN 0021-972X. - 99:1(2014), pp. 18-29. [10.1210/jc.2013-2394]
|Titolo:||Cardiovascular risk in adult patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and following substitution with GH-An update|
|Parole Chiave:||GH; GHD|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2394|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|