Background: Among Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations, Olfactory (OD) and Gustatory (GD) Dysfunctions (OGD) have drawn considerable attention, becoming a sort of hallmark of the disease. Many have speculated on the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of these disturbances; however, no definite answers have been produced on the topic. With this systematic review, we aimed to collect all the available evidence regarding the prevalence of OGD, the timing of their onset and their resolution, their rate of recovery and their role as diagnostic and prognostic tools for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Methods: A systematic review comprising all the observational studies that reported the prevalence and/or the longitudinal trajectories of OGD in COVID-19 patients, as self-reported by patients or measured through objective psychophysical tests. Results: After the selection process, 155 studies were included, with a total of 70,920 patients and 105,291 not-infected individuals. Prevalence reports were extremely variable across studies, with wide ranges for OD (0%-98%) and GD (0-89%) prevalence. OGD occurred early during the disease course and only rarely preceded other symptoms; out of 30 studies with a follow-up time of at least 20 days, only in 5 studies OGD fully resolved in more than 90% of patients. OGD had low sensitivity and high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 infection; accuracy of OD and GD for infection identification was higher than 80% in 10 out of 33 studies and in 8 out of 22 studies considered, respectively. 28 out of 30 studies that studied the association between OGD and disease severity found how OGD were associated with lower rates of severe pneumonia, hospitalization and mortality. Conclusions: OGD seem to be highly prevalent in SARS-CoV-2 infection. They occur early, concomitantly with other symptoms and often persist after recovery, in some cases for months; whether a full recovery eventually occurs in all cases is not clear yet. OGD are good predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with a milder disease course.
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review / A. Boscutti, G. Delvecchio, A. Pigoni, G. Cereda, V. Ciappolino, M. Bellani, P. Fusar-Poli, P. Brambilla. - In: BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, & IMMUNITY. HEALTH. - ISSN 2666-3546. - 15(2021), pp. 100268.1-100268.11.
|Titolo:||Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review|
|Parole Chiave:||SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Smell; Taste; Anosmia; Ageusia; Chemosensory|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/25 - Psichiatria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2021.100268|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|