Historic Rebel (HR) cheese is an Italian heritage cheese, produced from raw milk during the summer grazing period in the Alps. The aim of this work was (i) to characterize the cheese microbiota, by 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing, and the volatile and non-volatile lipophilic fraction, by Gas Chromatography and Dynamic Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and (ii) to evaluate their respective associations. HR cheese was dominated by Firmicutes phylum (99% of the entire abundance). The core microbiota was formed by Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera together representing 87.2-99.6% of the total abundance. The polyunsaturated fatty acids composition showed a high PUFA n-3, PUFA n-6 and CLA content, two fold higher than typical plain cheeses, positively correlated with pasture altitude. A complex volatilome was detected, dominated in terms of abundance by ketones, fatty acids and alcohols. Total terpene levels increased at higher altitudes, being the main terpenes compounds α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene. The HR cheese showed a great diversity of bacterial taxa and lipophilic fractions among producers, despite belonging to a small alpine area, revealing a scarce cheese standardization and a chemical fingerprint of a typical mountain cheese produced during the grazing period. A deeper knowledge of the variability of HR cheese due to its composition in microbial community and volatile compounds will be appreciated, in particular, by elite consumers looking for niche products, adding economic value to farming in these alpine areas.

High biodiversity in a limited mountain area revealed in the traditional production of Historic Rebel cheese by an integrated microbiota–lipidomic approach / F. Turri, P. Cremonesi, G. Battelli, M. Severgnini, M. Brasca, G. Gandini, F. Pizzi. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 11:1(2021), pp. 10374.1-10374.14.

High biodiversity in a limited mountain area revealed in the traditional production of Historic Rebel cheese by an integrated microbiota–lipidomic approach

F. Turri
;
P. Cremonesi;G. Gandini;
2021

Abstract

Historic Rebel (HR) cheese is an Italian heritage cheese, produced from raw milk during the summer grazing period in the Alps. The aim of this work was (i) to characterize the cheese microbiota, by 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing, and the volatile and non-volatile lipophilic fraction, by Gas Chromatography and Dynamic Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and (ii) to evaluate their respective associations. HR cheese was dominated by Firmicutes phylum (99% of the entire abundance). The core microbiota was formed by Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera together representing 87.2-99.6% of the total abundance. The polyunsaturated fatty acids composition showed a high PUFA n-3, PUFA n-6 and CLA content, two fold higher than typical plain cheeses, positively correlated with pasture altitude. A complex volatilome was detected, dominated in terms of abundance by ketones, fatty acids and alcohols. Total terpene levels increased at higher altitudes, being the main terpenes compounds α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene. The HR cheese showed a great diversity of bacterial taxa and lipophilic fractions among producers, despite belonging to a small alpine area, revealing a scarce cheese standardization and a chemical fingerprint of a typical mountain cheese produced during the grazing period. A deeper knowledge of the variability of HR cheese due to its composition in microbial community and volatile compounds will be appreciated, in particular, by elite consumers looking for niche products, adding economic value to farming in these alpine areas.
Mountain cheese; High-throughput sequencing; Microbiota; Volatilome; Terpenes; Fatty acids
Settore AGR/17 - Zootecnica Generale e Miglioramento Genetico
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/844847
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