Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape in a number of solid tumors. In colorectal cancer, evidence suggests that microsatellite high (MSI-H) tumors are the most responsive to immune checkpoint blockade due to increased neo-antigen load and a favorable tumor microenvironment. Indeed, Pembrolizumab now represents a first line option in such patients. However, MSI-H tumors represent the minority and a proportion of patients' progress despite initially responding. Trials are investigating different immunotherapy combinatorial strategies to enhance immune response in less immunogenic colorectal tumors. Such strategies include dual immune checkpoint blockade, combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with other treatment modalities such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other biological or targeted agents. Moreover, there is an increasing drive to identify biomarkers to better select patients most likely to respond to immunotherapy and understand intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. Apart from MSI-H tumors, there is a strong rationale to suggest that tumors with alterations in DNA polymerase epsilon and DNA polymerase delta are also likely to respond to immunotherapy and trials in this subpopulation are underway. Other strategies such as priming O6-methylguanineDNA methyltransferase silenced tumors with alkylating agents to make them receptive to immune checkpoint blockade are also being investigated. Here we discuss different colorectal subpopulations together with their likelihood of response to immune checkpoint blockade and strategies to overcome barriers to a successful clinical outcome. We summarize evidence from published clinical trials and provide an overview of trials in progress whilst discussing newer immunotherapy strategies such as adoptive cell therapies and cancer vaccines.
The Emergence of Immune-checkpoint Inhibitors in Colorectal Cancer Therapy / M. Ghidini, N. Fusco, M. Salati, S. Khakoo, G. Tomasello, F. Petrelli, D. Trapani, A. Petrillo. - In: CURRENT DRUG TARGETS. - ISSN 1389-4501. - 22(2021), pp. 1-13.
|Titolo:||The Emergence of Immune-checkpoint Inhibitors in Colorectal Cancer Therapy|
GHIDINI, MICHELE (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Colorectal cancer; adoptive cell therapies; cancer vaccines; immune-checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; microsatellite stable|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica|
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
|Data di pubblicazione:||4-feb-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450122666210204204415|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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