Purpose Dyslipidemia is a major health concern associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Long-term fasting (LF) has been shown to improve plasma lipid profile. We performed an in-depth investigation of lipoprotein composition. Methods This observational study included 40 volunteers (50% men, aged 32–65 years), who underwent a medically supervised fast of 14 days (250 kcal/day). Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels, as well as in lipoprotein subclasses and particles, were measured by ultracentrifugation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at baseline, and after 7 and 14 fasting days. Results The largest changes were found after 14 fasting days. There were significant reductions in triglycerides (TG, − 0.35 ± 0.1 mmol/L), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (− 0.46 ± 0.08 mmol/L), VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C, − 0.16 ± 0.03 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C (− 0.72 ± 0.14 mmol/L). Analysis of LDL subclasses showed a significant decrease in LDL1-C (− 0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L), LDL2-C (− 0.30 ± 0.06 mmol/L) and LDL3-C (− 0.27 ± 0.05 mmol/L). NMR spectroscopy showed a significant reduction in large VLDL particles (− 5.18 ± 1.26 nmol/L), as well as large (− 244.13 ± 39.45 nmol/L) and small LDL particles (− 38.45 ± 44.04 nmol/L). A significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C (− 0.16 ± 0.04 mmol/L) was observed. By contrast, the concentration in large HDL particles was significantly raised. Apolipoprotein A1 decreased significantly whereas apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were unchanged. Conclusion Our results suggest that LF improves lipoprotein levels and lipoprotein subclasses and ameliorates the lipoprotein-associated atherogenic risk profile, suggesting a reduction in the cardiovascular risk linked to dyslipidemia.

Long-term fasting improves lipoprotein-associated atherogenic risk in humans / F. Grundler, D. Plonné, R. Mesnage, D. Müller, C.R. Sirtori, M. Ruscica, F. Wilhelmi de Toledo. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. - ISSN 1436-6207. - 60:7(2021 Oct), pp. 4031-4044. [10.1007/s00394-021-02578-0]

Long-term fasting improves lipoprotein-associated atherogenic risk in humans

C.R. Sirtori
Writing – Review & Editing
;
M. Ruscica
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2021-10

Abstract

Purpose Dyslipidemia is a major health concern associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Long-term fasting (LF) has been shown to improve plasma lipid profile. We performed an in-depth investigation of lipoprotein composition. Methods This observational study included 40 volunteers (50% men, aged 32–65 years), who underwent a medically supervised fast of 14 days (250 kcal/day). Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels, as well as in lipoprotein subclasses and particles, were measured by ultracentrifugation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at baseline, and after 7 and 14 fasting days. Results The largest changes were found after 14 fasting days. There were significant reductions in triglycerides (TG, − 0.35 ± 0.1 mmol/L), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (− 0.46 ± 0.08 mmol/L), VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C, − 0.16 ± 0.03 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C (− 0.72 ± 0.14 mmol/L). Analysis of LDL subclasses showed a significant decrease in LDL1-C (− 0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L), LDL2-C (− 0.30 ± 0.06 mmol/L) and LDL3-C (− 0.27 ± 0.05 mmol/L). NMR spectroscopy showed a significant reduction in large VLDL particles (− 5.18 ± 1.26 nmol/L), as well as large (− 244.13 ± 39.45 nmol/L) and small LDL particles (− 38.45 ± 44.04 nmol/L). A significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C (− 0.16 ± 0.04 mmol/L) was observed. By contrast, the concentration in large HDL particles was significantly raised. Apolipoprotein A1 decreased significantly whereas apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were unchanged. Conclusion Our results suggest that LF improves lipoprotein levels and lipoprotein subclasses and ameliorates the lipoprotein-associated atherogenic risk profile, suggesting a reduction in the cardiovascular risk linked to dyslipidemia.
fasting; HDL-C; LDL-C; lipoprotein subclasses
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
7-mag-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/842313
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