Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease marked by progressive loss of motor abilities. Approximately half of patents with ALS experience cognitive (ALSci) or behavioural impairment (ALSbi) during the course of the disease, with a small percentage developing overt frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALSci and/or ALSbi can occur simultaneously with motor neuron degeneration or develop in advanced stages of the disease, but it can even precede motor involvement in some cases, namely in ALS patients meeting criteria for FTD. Despite clear evidence that cognitive/behavioural impairment may appear early in the course of ALS, no prominent deterioration seems to occur with disease progression. Longitudinal studies have failed to reach conclusive results on the progression of cognitive and behavioural involvement in ALS. This may be due to some structural limitations of the studies, such as attrition rate, practice effect, short-time interval between neuropsychological assessments, but it can also be due to the heterogeneity of ALS phenotypes. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of results of longitudinal studies highlighting cognitive and behavioural domains mainly affected by neurodegeneration pointing out the determinants that might be associate with the development and worsening of frontotemporal symptoms in ALS. At this regard, older age, rapidly progressing ALS, bulbar-onset, advanced disease stages are among factors mainly associated with cognitive and behavioural involvement. Moreover, the progression of cognitive and behavioural deficits seems to be not directly related to the slope of motor disability, thus suggesting the independence of neuropsychological and motor functional decline in ALS. Cognitive and motor involvement may indeed present with distinct trajectories suggesting a differential vulnerability of motor and non-motor cortical networks. In this scenario, determining the progression of extra-motor involvement in ALS may help refine understanding of the clinical implications of cognitive and behavioural abnormalities, and provide clues to the aetiology of the disease.
Cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A landmark of the disease? A mini review of longitudinal studies / M. Consonni, E. Dalla Bella, E. Bersano, G. Lauria. - In: NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS. - ISSN 0304-3940. - 754(2021), pp. 135898.1-135898.6.
|Titolo:||Cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A landmark of the disease? A mini review of longitudinal studies|
|Parole Chiave:||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Behavior; Bulbar; Cognition; Cognitive decline; Frontotemporal dementia|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/26 - Neurologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135898|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|