New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent complication in kidney allograft recipients. It may be caused by modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The non-modifiable factors are the same that may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes in the general population, whilst the modifiable factors include peri-operative stress, hepatitis C or cytomegalovirus infection, vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and immunosuppressive medications such as glu-cocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus more than cyclosporine), and mTOR inhibitors. The most worrying complication of NODAT are major adverse cardiovascular events which represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in transplanted patients. However, NODAT may also result in progressive diabetic kidney disease and is frequently associated with microvascular complications, eventually determining blindness or amputation. Preventive measures for NODAT include a careful assessment of glucose tolerance before transplantation, loss of over-weight, lifestyle modification, reduced caloric intake, and physical exercise. Concomitant measures include aggressive control of systemic blood pressure and lipids levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Hypomagne-semia and low levels of vitamin D should be corrected. Immunosuppressive strategies limiting the use of diabetogenic drugs are encouraged. Many hypoglycemic drugs are available and may be used in combination with metformin in difficult cases. In patients requiring insulin treatment, the dose and type of insulin should be decided on an individual basis as insulin requirements depend on the patient’s diet, amount of exercise, and renal function.

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation / C. Ponticelli, E. Favi, M. Ferraresso. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 57:3(2021), pp. 250.1-250.9. [10.3390/medicina57030250]

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation

E. Favi
;
M. Ferraresso
2021

Abstract

New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent complication in kidney allograft recipients. It may be caused by modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The non-modifiable factors are the same that may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes in the general population, whilst the modifiable factors include peri-operative stress, hepatitis C or cytomegalovirus infection, vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and immunosuppressive medications such as glu-cocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus more than cyclosporine), and mTOR inhibitors. The most worrying complication of NODAT are major adverse cardiovascular events which represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in transplanted patients. However, NODAT may also result in progressive diabetic kidney disease and is frequently associated with microvascular complications, eventually determining blindness or amputation. Preventive measures for NODAT include a careful assessment of glucose tolerance before transplantation, loss of over-weight, lifestyle modification, reduced caloric intake, and physical exercise. Concomitant measures include aggressive control of systemic blood pressure and lipids levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Hypomagne-semia and low levels of vitamin D should be corrected. Immunosuppressive strategies limiting the use of diabetogenic drugs are encouraged. Many hypoglycemic drugs are available and may be used in combination with metformin in difficult cases. In patients requiring insulin treatment, the dose and type of insulin should be decided on an individual basis as insulin requirements depend on the patient’s diet, amount of exercise, and renal function.
Calcineurin inhibitor; Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes; Immunosuppression; Kidney transplantation; MTOR inhibitor; New-onset diabetes after transplantation; NODAT; Renal allograft; Steroid
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/840398
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