Muscular weakness developing from critical illness neuropathy, myopathy and muscle atrophy has been characterized as intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). This entity occurs commonly during and after critical care stay. Various causal factors for functional incapacity have been proposed. Among these, individual patient characteristics (such as age, comorbidities and nutritional status), acting in association with sustained bed rest and pharmacological interventions (included the metabolic support approach), seem influential in reducing muscular mass. Long-term outcomes in heterogeneous ICUAW populations include transient disability in 30% of patients and persistent disabilities that may occur even in patients with nearly complete functional recovery. Currently available tools for the assessment of skeletal muscle mass are imprecise and difficult to perform in the ICU setting. A valid alternative to these imaging modalities is muscular ultrasonography, which allows visualization and classification of muscle characteristics by cross-sectional area, muscle layer thickness, echointensity by grayscale and the pennation angle). The aim of this narrative review is to describe the current literature addressing muscular ultrasound for the detection of muscle weakness and its potential impact on treatment and prognosis of critically ill patients when combined with biomarkers of muscle catabolism/anabolism and bioenergetic state. In addition, we suggest a practical flowchart for establishing an early diagnosis.
Clinical review : peripheral muscular ultrasound in the ICU / P. Formenti, M. Umbrello, S. Coppola, S. Froio, D. Chiumello. - In: ANNALS OF INTENSIVE CARE. - ISSN 2110-5820. - 9:1(2019 May), pp. 57.1-57.13.
|Titolo:||Clinical review : peripheral muscular ultrasound in the ICU|
FORMENTI, PAOLO (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||ICU-acquired weakness; Muscle cross-sectional area; Muscle echointensity; Muscle layer thickness; Pennation angle; Peripheral muscular ultrasound; Skeletal muscle|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mag-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-019-0531-x|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|