Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose pathogenesis seems to be related to an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, which leads to disrupted connectivity during brain development. Among the various biomarkers that have been evaluated in the last years, metabolic factors represent a bridge between genetic vulnerability and environmental aspects. In particular, cholesterol homeostasis and circulating fatty acids seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of ASDs, both through the contribute in the stabilization of cell membranes and the modulation of inflammatory factors. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the available data about the role of cholesterol and fatty acids, mainly long-chain ones, in the onset of ASDs. A bibliographic research on the main databases was performed and 36 studies were included in our review. Most of the studies document a correlation between ASDs and hypocholesterolemia, while the results concerning circulating fatty acids are less univocal. Even though further studies are necessary to confirm the available data, the metabolic biomarkers open to new treatment options such as the modulation of the lipid pattern through the diet.

The Role of Cholesterol and Fatty Acids in the Etiology and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders / C.M. Esposito, M. Buoli, V. Ciappolino, C. Agostoni, P. Brambilla. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 22:7(2021 Mar 29).

The Role of Cholesterol and Fatty Acids in the Etiology and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

C.M. Esposito
Primo
;
M. Buoli
Secondo
;
C. Agostoni
Penultimo
;
P. Brambilla
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose pathogenesis seems to be related to an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, which leads to disrupted connectivity during brain development. Among the various biomarkers that have been evaluated in the last years, metabolic factors represent a bridge between genetic vulnerability and environmental aspects. In particular, cholesterol homeostasis and circulating fatty acids seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of ASDs, both through the contribute in the stabilization of cell membranes and the modulation of inflammatory factors. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the available data about the role of cholesterol and fatty acids, mainly long-chain ones, in the onset of ASDs. A bibliographic research on the main databases was performed and 36 studies were included in our review. Most of the studies document a correlation between ASDs and hypocholesterolemia, while the results concerning circulating fatty acids are less univocal. Even though further studies are necessary to confirm the available data, the metabolic biomarkers open to new treatment options such as the modulation of the lipid pattern through the diet.
autism spectrum disorders; cholesterol; fatty acids; Asperger syndrome; pathogenesis;
Settore MED/25 - Psichiatria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/829517
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