We assessed the role of artificial intelligence applied to chest X-rays (CXRs) in supporting the diagnosis of COVID-19. We trained and cross-validated a model with an ensemble of 10 convolutional neural networks with CXRs of 98 COVID-19 patients, 88 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, and 98 subjects without either COVID-19 or CAP, collected in two Italian hospitals. The system was tested on two independent cohorts, namely, 148 patients (COVID-19, CAP, or negative) collected by one of the two hospitals (independent testing I) and 820 COVID-19 patients collected by a multicenter study (independent testing II). On the training and cross-validation dataset, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.91, 0.87, and 0.93 for COVID-19 versus negative subjects, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.94 for COVID-19 versus CAP. On the independent testing I, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.98, 0.88, and 0.98 for COVID-19 versus negative subjects, 0.97, 0.96, and 0.98 for COVID-19 versus CAP. On the independent testing II, the system correctly diagnosed 652 COVID-19 patients versus negative subjects (0.80 sensitivity) and correctly differentiated 674 COVID-19 versus CAP patients (0.82 sensitivity). This system appears promising for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of COVID-19, showing its potential as a second opinion tool in conditions of the variable prevalence of different types of infectious pneumonia.
Artificial Intelligence Applied to Chest X-ray for Differential Diagnosis of COVID-19 Pneumonia / C. Salvatore, M. Interlenghi, C.B. Monti, D. Ippolito, D. Capra, A. Cozzi, S. Schiaffino, A. Polidori, D. Gandola, M. Ali', I. Castiglioni, C. Messa, F. Sardanelli. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:3(2021 Mar).
|Titolo:||Artificial Intelligence Applied to Chest X-ray for Differential Diagnosis of COVID-19 Pneumonia|
MONTI, CATERINA BEATRICE (Co-primo)
SARDANELLI, FRANCESCO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||artificial intelligence; neural networks; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; community-acquired pneumonia; chest X-ray; sensitivity; specificity; differential diagnosis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/36 - Diagnostica per Immagini e Radioterapia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11030530|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
File in questo prodotto:
|Salvatore et al. - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence Applied to Chest X-ray for Differential Diagnosis of COVID-19 Pneumonia.pdf||Publisher's version/PDF||Open Access Visualizza/Apri|