Particulate matter (PM) is acknowledged to have multiple detrimental effects on human health. In this review, we report literature results on the possible link between outdoor PM and health outcomes with a focus on pulmonary infections and the mechanisms responsible for observed negative effects. PM physical and chemical properties, such as size and chemical composition, as well as major emission sources are described for a more comprehensive view about the role played by atmospheric PM in the observed adverse health effects; to this aim, major processes leading to the deposition of PM in the respiratory tract and how this can pave the way to the onset of pathologies are also presented. From the literature works here reviewed, two ways in which PM can threaten human health promoting respiratory infectious diseases are mostly taken into account. The first pathway is related to an enhanced susceptibility and here we will also report on molecular mechanisms in the lung immune system responsible for the augmented susceptibility to pathogens, such as the damage of mechanical defensive barriers, the alteration of the innate immune response, and the generation of oxidative stress. The second one deals with the relationship between infectious agents and PM; here we recall that viruses and bacteria (BioPM) are themselves part of atmospheric PM and are collected during sampling together with particles of different origin; so, data should be analysed with caution in order to avoid any false cause-effect relation. To face these issues a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory as also evident from the ongoing research about the mechanisms hypothesized for the SARS-CoV-2 airborne spreading, which is still controversial and claims for further investigation. Therefore, we preferred not to include papers dealing with SARS-CoV-2.

Advances on the immunotoxicity of outdoor particulate matter: A focus on physical and chemical properties and respiratory defence mechanisms / E. Nozza, S. Valentini, G. Melzi, R. Vecchi, E. Corsini. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 780(2021 Aug 01). [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146391]

Advances on the immunotoxicity of outdoor particulate matter: A focus on physical and chemical properties and respiratory defence mechanisms

Nozza, E.;Valentini, S.;Melzi, G.;Vecchi, R.;Corsini, E.
2021-08-01

Abstract

Particulate matter (PM) is acknowledged to have multiple detrimental effects on human health. In this review, we report literature results on the possible link between outdoor PM and health outcomes with a focus on pulmonary infections and the mechanisms responsible for observed negative effects. PM physical and chemical properties, such as size and chemical composition, as well as major emission sources are described for a more comprehensive view about the role played by atmospheric PM in the observed adverse health effects; to this aim, major processes leading to the deposition of PM in the respiratory tract and how this can pave the way to the onset of pathologies are also presented. From the literature works here reviewed, two ways in which PM can threaten human health promoting respiratory infectious diseases are mostly taken into account. The first pathway is related to an enhanced susceptibility and here we will also report on molecular mechanisms in the lung immune system responsible for the augmented susceptibility to pathogens, such as the damage of mechanical defensive barriers, the alteration of the innate immune response, and the generation of oxidative stress. The second one deals with the relationship between infectious agents and PM; here we recall that viruses and bacteria (BioPM) are themselves part of atmospheric PM and are collected during sampling together with particles of different origin; so, data should be analysed with caution in order to avoid any false cause-effect relation. To face these issues a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory as also evident from the ongoing research about the mechanisms hypothesized for the SARS-CoV-2 airborne spreading, which is still controversial and claims for further investigation. Therefore, we preferred not to include papers dealing with SARS-CoV-2.
BioPM; Immunotoxicity; Particulate matter; Respiratory infections
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/828259
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