Background: Corticotroph tumor progression (CTP) leading to Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe and difficult-to-treat complication subsequent to bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) for Cushing's disease. Its characteristics are not well described, and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are missing. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed focusing on clinical studies and case series (≥5 patients). Definition, cumulative incidence, treatment and long-term outcomes of CTP/NS after BADX were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented and discussed at an interdisciplinary consensus workshop attended by international pituitary experts in Munich on October 28, 2018. Results: Data covered definition and cumulative incidence (34 studies, 1275 patients), surgical outcome (12 studies, 187 patients), outcome of radiation therapy (21 studies, 273 patients), and medical therapy (15 studies, 72 patients). Conclusions: We endorse the definition of CTP-BADX/NS as radiological progression or new detection of a pituitary tumor on thin-section MRI. We recommend surveillance by MRI after 3 months and every 12 months for the first 3 years after BADX. Subsequently, we suggest clinical evaluation every 12 months and MRI at increasing intervals every 2-4 years (depending on ACTH and clinical parameters). We recommend pituitary surgery as first-line therapy in patients with CTP-BADX/NS. Surgery should be performed before extrasellar expansion of the tumor to obtain complete and long-term remission. Conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery should be utilized as second-line treatment for remnant tumor tissue showing extrasellar extension.

Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy (Nelson's syndrome): systematic review and expert consensus recommendations / M. Reincke, A. Albani, G. Assie, I. Bancos, T. Brue, M. Buchfelder, O. Chabre, F. Ceccato, A. Daniele, M. Detomas, G. Di Dalmazi, A. Elenkova, J. Findling, A.B. Grossman, C.E. Gomez-Sanchez, A.P. Heaney, J. Honegger, N. Karavitaki, A. Lacroix, E.R. Laws, M. Losa, M. Murakami, J. Newell-Price, F. Pecori Giraldi, L.G. Perez-Rivas, R. Pivonello, W.E. Rainey, S. Sbiera, J. Schopohl, C.A. Stratakis, M. Theodoropoulou, E.F.C. van Rossum, E. Valassi, S. Zacharieva, G. Rubinstein, K. Ritzel. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY. - ISSN 1479-683X. - 184:3(2021), pp. P1-P16. [10.1530/EJE-20-1088]

Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy (Nelson's syndrome): systematic review and expert consensus recommendations

F. Pecori Giraldi;
2021

Abstract

Background: Corticotroph tumor progression (CTP) leading to Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe and difficult-to-treat complication subsequent to bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) for Cushing's disease. Its characteristics are not well described, and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are missing. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed focusing on clinical studies and case series (≥5 patients). Definition, cumulative incidence, treatment and long-term outcomes of CTP/NS after BADX were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented and discussed at an interdisciplinary consensus workshop attended by international pituitary experts in Munich on October 28, 2018. Results: Data covered definition and cumulative incidence (34 studies, 1275 patients), surgical outcome (12 studies, 187 patients), outcome of radiation therapy (21 studies, 273 patients), and medical therapy (15 studies, 72 patients). Conclusions: We endorse the definition of CTP-BADX/NS as radiological progression or new detection of a pituitary tumor on thin-section MRI. We recommend surveillance by MRI after 3 months and every 12 months for the first 3 years after BADX. Subsequently, we suggest clinical evaluation every 12 months and MRI at increasing intervals every 2-4 years (depending on ACTH and clinical parameters). We recommend pituitary surgery as first-line therapy in patients with CTP-BADX/NS. Surgery should be performed before extrasellar expansion of the tumor to obtain complete and long-term remission. Conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery should be utilized as second-line treatment for remnant tumor tissue showing extrasellar extension.
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma; Adenoma; Adrenalectomy; Disease Progression; Humans; Nelson Syndrome
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
16-feb-2021
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/827324
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