Background: Bendamustine, used for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is known to cause prolonged myelosuppression and lymphocytopenia and has been associated with the risk of developing serious and fatal infections. While reports of localized CMV infections in asymptomatic patients exist, disseminated CMV disease has not been described. Case presentation: We report the first case of disseminated CMV infection in a 75-year-old male diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia with massive bone marrow infiltration. Despite 6-cycle R-bendamustine chemotherapy resulted in a good partial response, the patient developed persistent fever and severe weight loss. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood revealed the presence of CMV-DNA, while the fundus oculi examination revealed bilateral CMV retinitis. Treatment with induction and maintenance drugs was complicated by neutropenia and deterioration of renal function with electrolyte imbalance. From an immunological standpoint, we observed a profound imbalances in phenotype and function of B- A nd T-cell subsets, with a high proportion of circulating total, activated CD69+ and CD80+ B-cells, a low γ/δT-cell frequency with a high proportion of CD69- A nd CD38-expressing cells, and hyperactivated/exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell phenotypes unable to face CMV challenge. Conclusions: We hereby describe a severe form of disseminated CMV disease after R-bendamustine treatment. Our observations strongly support the careful clinical monitoring of CMV reactivation/infection in oncologic patients undergoing this therapeutic regimen.

Disseminated cytomegalovirus disease after bendamustine : a case report and analysis of circulating B- A nd T-cell subsets / A. Cona, D. Tesoro, M. Chiamenti, E. Merlini, D. Ferrari, A. Marti, C. Codeca, G. Ancona, C. Tincati, A. D'Arminio Monforte, G. Marchetti. - In: BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - ISSN 1471-2334. - 19:1(2019), pp. 881.1-881.5. [10.1186/s12879-019-4545-7]

Disseminated cytomegalovirus disease after bendamustine : a case report and analysis of circulating B- A nd T-cell subsets

A. Cona;D. Tesoro;M. Chiamenti;G. Ancona;C. Tincati;A. D'Arminio Monforte;G. Marchetti
2019

Abstract

Background: Bendamustine, used for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is known to cause prolonged myelosuppression and lymphocytopenia and has been associated with the risk of developing serious and fatal infections. While reports of localized CMV infections in asymptomatic patients exist, disseminated CMV disease has not been described. Case presentation: We report the first case of disseminated CMV infection in a 75-year-old male diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia with massive bone marrow infiltration. Despite 6-cycle R-bendamustine chemotherapy resulted in a good partial response, the patient developed persistent fever and severe weight loss. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood revealed the presence of CMV-DNA, while the fundus oculi examination revealed bilateral CMV retinitis. Treatment with induction and maintenance drugs was complicated by neutropenia and deterioration of renal function with electrolyte imbalance. From an immunological standpoint, we observed a profound imbalances in phenotype and function of B- A nd T-cell subsets, with a high proportion of circulating total, activated CD69+ and CD80+ B-cells, a low γ/δT-cell frequency with a high proportion of CD69- A nd CD38-expressing cells, and hyperactivated/exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell phenotypes unable to face CMV challenge. Conclusions: We hereby describe a severe form of disseminated CMV disease after R-bendamustine treatment. Our observations strongly support the careful clinical monitoring of CMV reactivation/infection in oncologic patients undergoing this therapeutic regimen.
B-cells; Bendamustine; Disseminated CMV; Lymphoma; T-cells; Aged; Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; Antiviral Agents; B-Lymphocytes; Bendamustine Hydrochloride; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Cytomegalovirus Retinitis; Humans; Male; T-Lymphocyte Subsets; Valganciclovir; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/827291
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