This study estimates the accuracy of the focused lung ultrasound (FLUS) compared with systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) as the reference test for diagnosing pneumonia in pre- and postweaned dairy calves. One hundred thirty-five Holstein Friesian calves, aged between 1 to 6 mo were enrolled and were kept in the same pen with one or more animals showing signs of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). One operator performed FLUS on each calf, and then a second, blinded operator performed TUS on the same calf. For the FLUS, we only scanned the lung lobes that are most frequently affected during BRDC and are thus easier to detect, such as the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the left lung (fifth and fourth left intercostal spaces; ICS), the middle lobe of the right lung (fifth right ICS), and the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the right lung (fourth right ICS). Pneumonia was diagnosed when a calf had a minimum of one small lobular lung lesion that was at least 1 cm deep within a normally aerated lobe (TUS score of ≥2). Diagnostic accuracy indexes of the FLUS were calculated using TUS as the gold standard. The McNemar test was performed to evaluate the differences between the 2 techniques. In addition, an intertest agreement was assessed using the weighted kappa test. A total of 76 out of 135 calves had a TUS score of ≥2 and were therefore considered to be affected by BRDC. The FLUS had a sensitivity of 81.6% (95% CI = 71.0–89.5%), specificity = 100% (95% CI = 93.9–100%), positive predictive value was 100%, negative predictive value was 96.6% (95% CI = 94.7­­–97.9%), and accuracy was 97% (95% CI = 92.6–99.2%). The McNemar test highlighted a difference of 10.3% between the FLUS and TUS. The agreement between the TUS and FLUS was substantial (weighted kappa test 0.78). Although FLUS shows some limitations in diagnosing lung lesions associated with BRDC compared with the systematic approach, this study shows that the focused method could be used as an additional tool for evaluating consolidation, especially when examining a large number of postweaned dairy calves.

Short communication: Diagnostic accuracy of focused lung ultrasonography as a rapid method for the diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy calves / D. Pravettoni, S. Buczinski, G. Sala, V. Ferrulli, F. Bianchi, A. Boccardo. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 104:4(2021 Apr), pp. 4929-4935. [10.3168/jds.2020-19377]

Short communication: Diagnostic accuracy of focused lung ultrasonography as a rapid method for the diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy calves

Pravettoni D.;Sala G.;Ferrulli V.;Boccardo A.
2021-04

Abstract

This study estimates the accuracy of the focused lung ultrasound (FLUS) compared with systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) as the reference test for diagnosing pneumonia in pre- and postweaned dairy calves. One hundred thirty-five Holstein Friesian calves, aged between 1 to 6 mo were enrolled and were kept in the same pen with one or more animals showing signs of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). One operator performed FLUS on each calf, and then a second, blinded operator performed TUS on the same calf. For the FLUS, we only scanned the lung lobes that are most frequently affected during BRDC and are thus easier to detect, such as the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the left lung (fifth and fourth left intercostal spaces; ICS), the middle lobe of the right lung (fifth right ICS), and the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the right lung (fourth right ICS). Pneumonia was diagnosed when a calf had a minimum of one small lobular lung lesion that was at least 1 cm deep within a normally aerated lobe (TUS score of ≥2). Diagnostic accuracy indexes of the FLUS were calculated using TUS as the gold standard. The McNemar test was performed to evaluate the differences between the 2 techniques. In addition, an intertest agreement was assessed using the weighted kappa test. A total of 76 out of 135 calves had a TUS score of ≥2 and were therefore considered to be affected by BRDC. The FLUS had a sensitivity of 81.6% (95% CI = 71.0–89.5%), specificity = 100% (95% CI = 93.9–100%), positive predictive value was 100%, negative predictive value was 96.6% (95% CI = 94.7­­–97.9%), and accuracy was 97% (95% CI = 92.6–99.2%). The McNemar test highlighted a difference of 10.3% between the FLUS and TUS. The agreement between the TUS and FLUS was substantial (weighted kappa test 0.78). Although FLUS shows some limitations in diagnosing lung lesions associated with BRDC compared with the systematic approach, this study shows that the focused method could be used as an additional tool for evaluating consolidation, especially when examining a large number of postweaned dairy calves.
bovine respiratory disease; calves; focused ultrasonography; thoracic ultrasonography
Settore VET/08 - Clinica Medica Veterinaria
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/826721
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