Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures have been the standard for many different applications, ranging from basic research to stem cell and cancer research to regenerative medicine, for most of the past century. Hence, almost all of our knowledge about fundamental biological processes has been provided by primary and established cell lines cultured in 2D monolayer. However, cells in tissues and organs do not exist as single entities, and life in multicellular organisms relies on the coordination of several cellular activities, which depend on cell-cell communication across different cell types and tissues. In addition, cells are embedded within a complex non-cellular structure known as the extracellular matrix (ECM), which anchors them in a three-dimensional (3D) formation. Likewise, tumour cells interact with their surrounding matrix and tissue, and the physical and biochemical properties of this microenvironment regulate cancer differentiation, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. 2D models are unable to mimic the complex and dynamic interactions of the tumour microenvironment (TME) and ignore spatial cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions. Thus, multicellular 3D models are excellent tools to recapitulate in vitro the spatial dimension, cellular heterogeneity, and molecular networks of the TME. This review summarizes the biological significance of the cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions in the onset and progression of tumours and focuses on the requirement for these interactions to build up representative in vitro models for the study of the pathophysiology of cancer and for the design of more clinically relevant treatments.

Multicellular 3D Models to Study Tumour-Stroma Interactions / E. Colombo, M.G. Cattaneo. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 22:4(2021 Feb), pp. 1633.1-1633.19. [10.3390/ijms22041633]

Multicellular 3D Models to Study Tumour-Stroma Interactions

E. Colombo;M.G. Cattaneo
2021

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures have been the standard for many different applications, ranging from basic research to stem cell and cancer research to regenerative medicine, for most of the past century. Hence, almost all of our knowledge about fundamental biological processes has been provided by primary and established cell lines cultured in 2D monolayer. However, cells in tissues and organs do not exist as single entities, and life in multicellular organisms relies on the coordination of several cellular activities, which depend on cell-cell communication across different cell types and tissues. In addition, cells are embedded within a complex non-cellular structure known as the extracellular matrix (ECM), which anchors them in a three-dimensional (3D) formation. Likewise, tumour cells interact with their surrounding matrix and tissue, and the physical and biochemical properties of this microenvironment regulate cancer differentiation, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. 2D models are unable to mimic the complex and dynamic interactions of the tumour microenvironment (TME) and ignore spatial cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions. Thus, multicellular 3D models are excellent tools to recapitulate in vitro the spatial dimension, cellular heterogeneity, and molecular networks of the TME. This review summarizes the biological significance of the cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions in the onset and progression of tumours and focuses on the requirement for these interactions to build up representative in vitro models for the study of the pathophysiology of cancer and for the design of more clinically relevant treatments.
2D cell culture; 3D cell culture; CCC; ECM; TME; cell–cell communication; extracellular matrix; multicellular spheroids; tumor microenvironment
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
feb-2021
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/814436
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