Among the possible variants of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), applications exploiting scanning Macro-XRF (MA-XRF) are lately widespread as they allow the visualization of the element distribution maintaining a non-destructive approach. The surface is scanned with a focused or collimated X-ray beam of millimeters or less: analyzing the emitted fluorescence radiation, also elements present below the surface contribute to the elemental distribution image obtained, due to the penetrative nature of X-rays. The importance of this method in the investigation of historical paintings is so obvious—as the elemental distribution obtained can reveal hidden sub-surface layers, including changes made by the artist, or restorations, without any damage to the object—that recently specific international conferences have been held. The present paper summarizes the advantages and limitations of using MA-XRF considering it as an imaging technique, in synergy with other hyperspectral methods, or combining it with spot investigations. The most recent applications in the cultural Heritage field are taken into account, demonstrating how obtained 2D-XRF maps can be of great help in the diagnostic applied on Cultural Heritage materials. Moreover, a pioneering analysis protocol based on the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm is presented, unifying the MA-XRF standard approach with punctual XRF, exploiting information from the mapped area as a database to extend the comprehension to data outside the scanned region, and working independently from the acquisition set-up. Experimental application on some reference pigment layers and a painting by Giotto are presented as validation of the proposed method. View Full-Text

More than XRF Mapping: STEAM (Statistically Tailored Elemental Angle Mapper) a Pioneering Analysis Protocol for Pigment Studies / J. Orsilli, A. Galli, L.M. Bonizzoni, M. Caccia. - In: APPLIED SCIENCES. - ISSN 2076-3417. - 11:4(2021 Feb 05).

More than XRF Mapping: STEAM (Statistically Tailored Elemental Angle Mapper) a Pioneering Analysis Protocol for Pigment Studies

L.M. Bonizzoni
;
2021

Abstract

Among the possible variants of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), applications exploiting scanning Macro-XRF (MA-XRF) are lately widespread as they allow the visualization of the element distribution maintaining a non-destructive approach. The surface is scanned with a focused or collimated X-ray beam of millimeters or less: analyzing the emitted fluorescence radiation, also elements present below the surface contribute to the elemental distribution image obtained, due to the penetrative nature of X-rays. The importance of this method in the investigation of historical paintings is so obvious—as the elemental distribution obtained can reveal hidden sub-surface layers, including changes made by the artist, or restorations, without any damage to the object—that recently specific international conferences have been held. The present paper summarizes the advantages and limitations of using MA-XRF considering it as an imaging technique, in synergy with other hyperspectral methods, or combining it with spot investigations. The most recent applications in the cultural Heritage field are taken into account, demonstrating how obtained 2D-XRF maps can be of great help in the diagnostic applied on Cultural Heritage materials. Moreover, a pioneering analysis protocol based on the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm is presented, unifying the MA-XRF standard approach with punctual XRF, exploiting information from the mapped area as a database to extend the comprehension to data outside the scanned region, and working independently from the acquisition set-up. Experimental application on some reference pigment layers and a painting by Giotto are presented as validation of the proposed method. View Full-Text
MA-XRF; SAM; STEAM; pigments; elemental mapping; painting stratigraphy; Giotto
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/814011
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