Background: The objective evaluation of the olfactory function of coronavirus disease 2019 patients is difficult because of logistical and operator-safety problems. For this reason, in the literature, the data obtained from psychophysical tests are few and based on small case series. Methods: A multicenter, cohort study conducted in seven European hospitals between March 22 and August 20, 2020. The Sniffin-Sticks test and the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center orthonasal olfaction test were used to objectively evaluate the olfactory function. Results: This study included 774 patients, of these 481 (62.1%) presented olfactory dysfunction (OD): 280 were hyposmic and 201 were anosmic. There was a significant difference between self-reported anosmia/hyposmia and psychophysical test results (p = 0.006). Patients with gastroesophageal disorders reported a significantly higher probability of presenting hyposmia (OR 1.86; p = 0.015) and anosmia (OR 2.425; p < 0.001). Fever, chest pain, and phlegm significantly increased the likelihood of having hyposmia but not anosmia or an olfactory disturbance. In contrast, patients with dyspnea, dysphonia, and severe-to-critical COVID-19 were significantly more likely to have no anosmia, while these symptoms had no effect on the risk of developing hyposmia or an OD. Conclusions: Psychophysical assessment represents a significantly more accurate assessment tool for olfactory function than patient self-reported clinical outcomes. Olfactory disturbances appear to be largely independent from the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients. The non-association with rhinitis symptoms and the high prevalence as a presenting symptom make olfactory disturbances an important symptom in the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and common flu.
Psychophysical evaluation of the olfactory function : European multicenter study on 774 covid-19 patients / L.A. Vaira, J.R. Lechien, M. Khalife, M. Petrocelli, S. Hans, L. Distinguin, G. Salzano, M. Cucurullo, P. Doneddu, F.A. Salzano, F. Biglioli, F. Journe, A.F. Piana, G. De Riu, S. Saussez. - In: PATHOGENS. - ISSN 2076-0817. - 10:1(2021 Jan), pp. 62.1-62.11.
|Titolo:||Psychophysical evaluation of the olfactory function : European multicenter study on 774 covid-19 patients|
|Parole Chiave:||Anosmia; COVID-19; Hyposmia; Olfaction; Olfactory dysfunction; Parosmia; SARS-CoV-2; Smell|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/29 - Chirurgia Maxillofacciale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||gen-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010062|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|