Tobacco smoking is still a widespread habit in pregnant and breastfeeding women. While the role of these risk factors on neonatal outcomes has been deeply studied, their effect on human milk composition is still not completely clear. This study aimed to report the most up to date evidence about the alteration of breast milk composition of smoking breastfeeding mothers compared to non-smoking ones. We performed a systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Evaluated data were extracted and critically analyzed by two independent authors. PRISMA guidelines were applied, and the risk of bias was assessed (ROBINS), as was the methodological quality of the included studies (GRADE). After applying the inclusion criteria, we included 20 studies assessed as medium or high quality. In all the studies, we analyzed data regarding 1769 mothers (398 smokers and 971 nonsmokers). Smoking was associated with a lower content of lipids, calories, and proteins. Moreover, it was characterized by decreased antioxidant properties and an altered immune status. Smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding is significantly associated with an alteration of milk metabolic properties. Further studies are needed to investigate how these changes can alter newborns’ development and outcomes and which molecular patterns are involved.

The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding on human milk composition—a systematic review / M. Macchi, L. Bambini, S. Franceschini, I.D. Alexa, C. Agostoni. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. - ISSN 0954-3007. - (2020 Oct 22). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1038/s41430-020-00784-3]

The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding on human milk composition—a systematic review

C. Agostoni
2020

Abstract

Tobacco smoking is still a widespread habit in pregnant and breastfeeding women. While the role of these risk factors on neonatal outcomes has been deeply studied, their effect on human milk composition is still not completely clear. This study aimed to report the most up to date evidence about the alteration of breast milk composition of smoking breastfeeding mothers compared to non-smoking ones. We performed a systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Evaluated data were extracted and critically analyzed by two independent authors. PRISMA guidelines were applied, and the risk of bias was assessed (ROBINS), as was the methodological quality of the included studies (GRADE). After applying the inclusion criteria, we included 20 studies assessed as medium or high quality. In all the studies, we analyzed data regarding 1769 mothers (398 smokers and 971 nonsmokers). Smoking was associated with a lower content of lipids, calories, and proteins. Moreover, it was characterized by decreased antioxidant properties and an altered immune status. Smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding is significantly associated with an alteration of milk metabolic properties. Further studies are needed to investigate how these changes can alter newborns’ development and outcomes and which molecular patterns are involved.
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
s41430-020-00784-3.pdf

accesso riservato

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 710.42 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
710.42 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/809727
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 6
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact