Background: TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are the nanomaterial most produced as an ultraviolet (UV) filter. However, TiO2 is a semiconductor and, in nanoparticle size, is a strong photocatalyst, raising concerns about photomutagenesis. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were synthetized incorporating TiO2 NPs (TiO2@MSN) to develop a cosmetic UV filter. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of TiO2@MSN, compared with bare MSN and commercial TiO2 NPs, based on several biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were exposed to TiO2@MSN, bare MSN (network) or commercial TiO2 NPs for comparison. Exposed PBMC were characterized for cell viability/apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nuclear morphology, and cytokines secretion. Results: All the nanoparticles induced apoptosis, but only TiO2 NPs (alone or assembled into MSN) led to ROS and micronuclei. However, TiO2@MSN showed lower ROS and cytotoxicity with respect to the P25. Exposure to TiO2@MSN induced Th2-skewed and pro-fibrotic responses. Conclusions: Geno-cytotoxicity data indicate that TiO2@MSN are safer than P25 and MSN. Cytokine responses induced by TiO2@MSN are imputable to both the TiO2 NPs and MSN, and, therefore, considered of low immunotoxicological relevance. This analytical assessment might provide hints for NPs modification and deep purification to reduce the risk of health effects in the settings of their large-scale manufacturing and everyday usage by consumers.
Genotoxicity and Immunotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (TiO2@MSN) in Primary Peripheral Human Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) / L. Di Giampaolo, G. Zaccariello, A. Benedetti, G. Vecchiotti, F. Caposano, E. Sabbioni, F. Groppi, S. Manenti, Q. Niu, A.M.G. Poma, M. Di Gioacchino, C. Petrarca. - In: NANOMATERIALS. - ISSN 2079-4991. - 11:2(2021 Jan), pp. 270.1-270.21.
|Titolo:||Genotoxicity and Immunotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (TiO2@MSN) in Primary Peripheral Human Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)|
|Parole Chiave:||Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles; UV filter; cosmetic industry; cytokines; immunotoxicity; nanoparticles; sunscreen; titanium oxide|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)|
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro
|Data di pubblicazione:||gen-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020270|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|