Context: Alemtuzumab, a highly effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), predisposes to Graves disease (GD), with a reportedly indolent course. Objective: To determine the type, frequency, and course of thyroid dysfunction (TD) in a cohort of alemtuzumab-treated patients with MS in the United Kingdom. Design: Case records of alemtuzumab-treated patients who developed TD were reviewed. Results: A total of 41.1% (102 out of 248; 80 female and 22 male) of patients developed TD, principally GD (71.6%). Median onset was 17 months (range 2 to 107) following the last dose, with the majority (89%) within 3 years. Follow-up data (range 6 to 251 months) were available in 71 case subjects, of whom 52 (73.2%) developed GD: 10 of these (19.2%) had fluctuating TD. All 52 patients with GD commenced antithyroid drugs (ATDs): 3 required radioiodine (RAI) due to ATD side effects, and drug therapy is ongoing in 2; of those who completed a course, 16 are in remission, 1 developed spontaneous hypothyroidism, and 30 (64%) required definitive or long-term treatment (RAI, n = 17; thyroidectomy, n = 5; and long-term ATDs, n = 8). Three cases of thyroiditis and 16 cases of hypothyroidism were documented: 5 with antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity only, 10 with positive TSH receptor antibody (TRAb), and 1 of uncertain etiology. Bioassay confirmed both stimulating and blocking TRAb in a subset of fluctuating GD cases. Conclusions: Contrary to published literature, we recorded frequent occurrence of GD that required definitive or prolonged ATD treatment. Furthermore, fluctuating thyroid status in GD and unexpectedly high frequency of TRAb-positive hypothyroidism suggested changing activity of TRAb in this clinical context; we have documented the existence of both blocking and stimulating TRAb in these patients.

Alemtuzumab-induced thyroid dysfunction exhibits distinctive clinical and immunological features / N. Pariani, M. Willis, I. Muller, S. Healy, T. Nasser, A. McGowan, G. Lyons, J. Jones, K. Chatterjee, C. Dayan, N. Robertson, A. Coles, C. Moran. - In: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM. - ISSN 0021-972X. - 103:8(2018 Aug), pp. 3010-3018. [10.1210/jc.2018-00359]

Alemtuzumab-induced thyroid dysfunction exhibits distinctive clinical and immunological features

I. Muller;
2018-08

Abstract

Context: Alemtuzumab, a highly effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), predisposes to Graves disease (GD), with a reportedly indolent course. Objective: To determine the type, frequency, and course of thyroid dysfunction (TD) in a cohort of alemtuzumab-treated patients with MS in the United Kingdom. Design: Case records of alemtuzumab-treated patients who developed TD were reviewed. Results: A total of 41.1% (102 out of 248; 80 female and 22 male) of patients developed TD, principally GD (71.6%). Median onset was 17 months (range 2 to 107) following the last dose, with the majority (89%) within 3 years. Follow-up data (range 6 to 251 months) were available in 71 case subjects, of whom 52 (73.2%) developed GD: 10 of these (19.2%) had fluctuating TD. All 52 patients with GD commenced antithyroid drugs (ATDs): 3 required radioiodine (RAI) due to ATD side effects, and drug therapy is ongoing in 2; of those who completed a course, 16 are in remission, 1 developed spontaneous hypothyroidism, and 30 (64%) required definitive or long-term treatment (RAI, n = 17; thyroidectomy, n = 5; and long-term ATDs, n = 8). Three cases of thyroiditis and 16 cases of hypothyroidism were documented: 5 with antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity only, 10 with positive TSH receptor antibody (TRAb), and 1 of uncertain etiology. Bioassay confirmed both stimulating and blocking TRAb in a subset of fluctuating GD cases. Conclusions: Contrary to published literature, we recorded frequent occurrence of GD that required definitive or prolonged ATD treatment. Furthermore, fluctuating thyroid status in GD and unexpectedly high frequency of TRAb-positive hypothyroidism suggested changing activity of TRAb in this clinical context; we have documented the existence of both blocking and stimulating TRAb in these patients.
Adult; Alemtuzumab; Disease Progression; Female; Graves Disease; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Multiple Sclerosis; Retrospective Studies; Thyroid Diseases; Thyroiditis; Young Adult
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/806726
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