Background: Since the first observations of patients with COVID-19, significant hypoalbuminaemia was detected. Its causes have not been investigated yet. Objective: We hypothesized that pulmonary capillary leakage affects the severity of respiratory failure, causing a shift of fluids and proteins through the epithelial–endothelial barrier. Methods: One hundred seventy-four COVID-19 patients with respiratory symptoms, 92 admitted to the intermediate medicine ward (IMW) and 82 to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Luigi Sacco Hospital in Milan, were studied. Results: Baseline characteristics at admission were considered. Proteins, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed in 26 ICU patients. In addition, ten autopsy ultrastructural lung studies were performed in patients with COVID-19 and compared with postmortem findings in a control group (bacterial pneumonia-ARDS and H1N1-ARDS). ICU patients had lower serum albumin than IMW patients [20 (18–23) vs 28 (24–33) g L−1, P < 0.001]. Serum albumin was lower in more compromised groups (lower PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio and worst chest X-ray findings) and was associated with 30 days of probability of survival. Protein concentration was correlated with IL-8 and IL-10 levels in BALF. Electron microscopy examinations of eight out of ten COVID-19 lung tissues showed loosening of junctional complexes, quantitatively more pronounced than in controls, and direct viral infection of type 2 pneumocytes and endothelial cells. Conclusion: Hypoalbuminaemia may serve as severity marker of epithelial–endothelial damage in patients with COVID-19. There are clues that pulmonary capillary leak syndrome plays a key role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and might be a potential therapeutic target.
Hypoalbuminemia in COVID-19 : assessing the hypothesis for underlying pulmonary capillary leakage / M.A. Wu, T. Fossali, L. Pandolfi, L. Carsana, D. Ottolina, V. Frangipane, R. Rech, A. Tosoni, G. Lopez, A. Agarossi, C. Cogliati, F. Meloni, B. Marchini, M. Nebuloni, E. Catena, R. Colombo. - In: JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 0954-6820. - 289:6(2021 Jun), pp. 861-872.
|Titolo:||Hypoalbuminemia in COVID-19 : assessing the hypothesis for underlying pulmonary capillary leakage|
|Parole Chiave:||capillary leakage; capillary permeability; COVID-19; critical care; hypoalbuminaemia; SARS-CoV-2|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica
|Data di pubblicazione:||giu-2021|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||7-gen-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13208|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|