Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways of the immune system that play a crucial role in maintaining self-tolerance and in tuning the duration and amplitude of physiological immune responses to minimize collateral tissue damages. The breakdown of this delicate balance leads to pathological conditions, including cancer. Indeed, tumor cells can develop multiple mechanisms to escape from immune system defense, including the activation of immune checkpoint pathways. The development of monoclonal antibodies, targeting inhibitory immune checkpoints, has provided an immense breakthrough in cancer therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), initially developed to reverse functional exhaustion in T cells, recently emerged as important actors in natural killer (NK)-cell-based immunotherapy. Moreover, the discovery that also helper innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) express inhibitory immune checkpoints, suggests that these molecules might be targeted on ILCs, to modulate their functions in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, other strategies to achieve immune checkpoint blockade have been developed, including miRNA exploiting systems. Herein, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on inhibitory immune checkpoints on NK cells and ILCs and we discuss how to target these innate lymphocytes by ICI in both solid tumors and hematological malignancies.
Cancer Immunotherapy by Blocking Immune Checkpoints on Innate Lymphocytes / S. Pesce, S. Trabanelli, C. Di Vito, M. Greppi, V. Obino, F. Guolo, P. Minetto, M. Bozzo, M. Calvi, E. Zaghi, S. Candiani, R.M. Lemoli, C. Jandus, D. Mavilio, E. Marcenaro. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 12:12(2020 Dec).
|Titolo:||Cancer Immunotherapy by Blocking Immune Checkpoints on Innate Lymphocytes|
DI VITO, CLARA [Membro del Collaboration Group]
CALVI, MICHELA [Membro del Collaboration Group]
MAVILIO, DOMENICO (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||KIR; NKG2A; PD-1; immune checkpoint; immune escape; immunotherapy; innate immunity; innate lymphoid cells; miRNA; natural killer cells|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/46 - Scienze Tecniche di Medicina di Laboratorio|
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
|Data di pubblicazione:||dic-2020|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||25-nov-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123504|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|