Focused Clinical Question: What are the indications and clinical applications for gingival augmentation procedures, and what factors guide the choice among treatment options in specific situations? Summary: Although there is still controversy regarding whether there needs to be a minimum amount of attached gingiva to maintain the stability of the gingival margin, prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in the presence of suboptimal plaque control and clinical inflammation, attachment loss and gingival recession (GR) may result unless a minimum amount of keratinized tissue (KT) and attached gingiva are present. Treatment of mucogingival deformities requires gingival augmentation procedures that address both a functional and esthetic component for the patient. Although free gingival grafts (FGGs) are considered the gold standard for treatment of GR defects to obtain root coverage, augmentation of KT and attached gingiva may be accomplished by FGG or other autogenous grafting options, including the free connective tissue graft, the lateral pedicle graft, and the double papilla technique. In addition, the modified apically repositioned flap can be considered in some instances. Alternatives to autogenous graft tissue include acellular dermal matrix, extracellular matrix membrane, bilayer collagen matrix, and living cellular construct. Conclusions: Understanding the clinical importance of the presence of a minimum amount of attached gingiva in patients with suboptimal hygiene is an important first step in addressing the condition. Patient education to address plaque control and counseling to quit smoking in patients who are smokers help enhance the success of these mucogingival surgical procedures. An analysis of patient-specific factors will help with the appropriate choice of surgical procedures aimed at augmenting the dimension of KT/attached gingival tissue. Evidence supporting the treatment decisions described in this practical application is summarized in the companion papers from the American Academy of Periodontology Regeneration Workshop (Kim and Neiva, J Periodontol 2015;86(Suppl.):S56-S72; Scheyer et al., J Periodontol 2015;86(Suppl.):S73-S76).
Periodontal Soft Tissue Non–Root Coverage Procedures : Practical Applications From the AAP Regeneration Workshop / V. John, L. Langer, G. Rasperini, D.M. Kim, R. Neiva, H. Greenwell, S. Dibart, M. Sanz, E.T. Scheyer. - In: CLINICAL ADVANCES IN PERIODONTICS. - ISSN 2163-0097. - 5:1(2015), pp. 11-20.
|Titolo:||Periodontal Soft Tissue Non–Root Coverage Procedures : Practical Applications From the AAP Regeneration Workshop|
|Parole Chiave:||Dental plaque; gingiva; gingival recession; inflammation; periodontal attachment loss|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/28 - Malattie Odontostomatologiche|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/cap.2015.140051|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|