Objective: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate systemic and local inflammation as well as progression of vascular inflammation in normal and mechanically injured vessels in a large animal model of mild hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was also to test the effect of high-dose statin treatment on these processes. Methods: Pigs were kept for 120 days on a standard diet (SD, n=7), high-cholesterol diet (HCD, n=7) or high-cholesterol diet with Atorvastatin starting after 50 days (STATIN, n=7). Left carotid artery balloon injury was conducted in all groups after 60 days of diet treatment. Biochemical analysis together with evaluation of blood and tissue markers of vascular injury and inflammation were performed in all groups at the end of experiment. Results: HCD compared to SD induced systemic inflammation demonstrated by increased number of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes. HCD compared to SD induced also local inflammation demonstrated by adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of T-lymphocytes in abdominal white adipose tissue, activation of hepatic stellate cells with infiltration of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the liver and increased macrophage content in lung parenchyma. These changes were accompanied by increased Intima/Media thickness, stenosis, matrix deposition and activated T-cell infiltrates in injured but not in uninjured contralateral carotid artery as we previously reported. The treatment with high-dose statin attenuated all aspects of systemic and local inflammation as well as pathological changes in injured carotid artery. Conclusions: Diet related mild hypercholesterolemia induce systemic and local inflammation in the liver, lung and adipose tissue that coincide with enhanced inflammation of injured vessel but is without deleterious effect on uninjured vessels. High dose statin attenuated systemic and local inflammation and protected injured vessels. However, finding exact role of reduced systemic and remote inflammation in vascular protection requires further studies.

Diet induced mild hypercholesterolemia in pigs: Local and systemic inflammation, effects on vascular injury - Rescue by high-dose statin treatment / M. Busnelli, S. Manzini, A. Froio, A. Vargiolu, M.G. Cerrito, R.T. Smolenski, M. Giunti, A. Cinti, A. Zannoni, B.E. Leone, M. Forni, M.L. Bacci, G.M. Biasi, R. Giovannoni, M. Lavitrano. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - 8:11(2013), pp. e80588.1-e80588.15. [10.1371/journal.pone.0080588]

Diet induced mild hypercholesterolemia in pigs: Local and systemic inflammation, effects on vascular injury - Rescue by high-dose statin treatment

M. Busnelli;S. Manzini;
2013

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate systemic and local inflammation as well as progression of vascular inflammation in normal and mechanically injured vessels in a large animal model of mild hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was also to test the effect of high-dose statin treatment on these processes. Methods: Pigs were kept for 120 days on a standard diet (SD, n=7), high-cholesterol diet (HCD, n=7) or high-cholesterol diet with Atorvastatin starting after 50 days (STATIN, n=7). Left carotid artery balloon injury was conducted in all groups after 60 days of diet treatment. Biochemical analysis together with evaluation of blood and tissue markers of vascular injury and inflammation were performed in all groups at the end of experiment. Results: HCD compared to SD induced systemic inflammation demonstrated by increased number of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes. HCD compared to SD induced also local inflammation demonstrated by adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of T-lymphocytes in abdominal white adipose tissue, activation of hepatic stellate cells with infiltration of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the liver and increased macrophage content in lung parenchyma. These changes were accompanied by increased Intima/Media thickness, stenosis, matrix deposition and activated T-cell infiltrates in injured but not in uninjured contralateral carotid artery as we previously reported. The treatment with high-dose statin attenuated all aspects of systemic and local inflammation as well as pathological changes in injured carotid artery. Conclusions: Diet related mild hypercholesterolemia induce systemic and local inflammation in the liver, lung and adipose tissue that coincide with enhanced inflammation of injured vessel but is without deleterious effect on uninjured vessels. High dose statin attenuated systemic and local inflammation and protected injured vessels. However, finding exact role of reduced systemic and remote inflammation in vascular protection requires further studies.
Adipocytes; Animals; Biopsy; Cholesterol; Cholesterol, LDL; Diet; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertrophy; Inflammation; Leukocyte Count; Liver; Lung; Lymphocytes; Macrophages; Monocytes; Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal; Swine; Vascular System Injuries
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
Settore BIO/16 - Anatomia Umana
Settore BIO/17 - Istologia
2013
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/783621
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