Background: Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is spreading around the world. At the end of February, the outburst of the pandemic has hit hard on northern Italian's hospitals. As of today, no data have been published regarding the severity of respiratory failure of patients presenting to the Emergency Departments. Moreover, the outcome the patients forced to undergo Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) due to lack of Intensive Care resources is unknown. “Papa Giovanni XXIII” hospital (HPG23) of Bergamo is one of the largest hospitals in the Country, with an Emergency Department (ED) managing over 100,000 patients per year. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study based on chart review of patients presenting to the Emergency Department of HPG23 from 29/02/2020 to 10/03/2020 with a clinical condition highly suspicious for COVID-19 infection. Registration of admission rates, severity of respiratory failure (ARDS classification), need of respiratory support, SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and outcome of patients treated with a ventilatory support were registered on 10th of May 2020. Findings: From 29/02 to 10/03 611 patients with a suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were evaluated in our ED; 320 (52%) met the criteria for hospital admission and 99 (31%) needed to be immediately started on ventilatory support (81% CPAP, 7% NIPPV, 12% Invasive Mechanical Ventilation). Eighty-five (86%) of the 99 patients needing a ventilatory support eventually had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR test on nasal-pharyngeal swab. Their median PO2/FiO2 ratio was 128 (IQR 85–168), with 23 patients (29.5%) classified as severe ARDS. Mortality rate as of 10th of May was 76.5%, ranging from 44.4% within patients <60 years old to 85% within those older than 60 years (p = 0.001). NIPPV/CPAP failure occurred in 91.5% of patients. Interpretation: The population of patients suspected for COVID-19 infection presenting at our ED showed a very high rate of severe respiratory failure, with urgent need of a large amount of intensive care resources. Mortality rates of critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 (76.5%) are similar to previously reported studies with similar population. CPAP/NIPPV could be a valid strategy to treat severely hypoxic patients that cannot be intubated in the ED due to lack of intensive care resources. Funding: No funds were received for this research project.
Severity of respiratory failure and outcome of patients needing a ventilatory support in the Emergency Department during Italian novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 outbreak: Preliminary data on the role of Helmet CPAP and Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation / A. Duca, I. Memaj, F. Zanardi, C. Preti, A. Alesi, L. Della Bella, E. Ghezzi, F. Di Marco, F.L. Lorini, S. Venturelli, S. Fagiuoli, R. Cosentini. - In: ECLINICALMEDICINE. - ISSN 2589-5370. - (2020). [Epub ahead of print]
|Titolo:||Severity of respiratory failure and outcome of patients needing a ventilatory support in the Emergency Department during Italian novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 outbreak: Preliminary data on the role of Helmet CPAP and Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/10 - Malattie dell'Apparato Respiratorio|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||18-giu-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100419|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|