Joint friction has never previously been considered in the computation of mechanical and metabolic energy balance of human and animal (loco)motion, which heretofore included just muscle work to move the body centre of mass (external work) and body segments with respect to it. This happened mainly because, having been previously measured ex vivo, friction was considered to be almost negligible. Present evidences of in vivo damping of limb oscillations, motion captured and processed by a suited mathematical model, show that: (a) the time course is exponential, suggesting a viscous friction operated by the all biological tissues involved; (b) during the swing phase, upper limbs report a friction close to one-sixth of the lower limbs; (c) when lower limbs are loaded, in an upside-down body posture allowing to investigate the hip joint subjected to compressive forces as during the stance phase, friction is much higher and load dependent; and (d) the friction of the four limbs during locomotion leads to an additional internal work that is a remarkable fraction of the mechanical external work. These unprecedented results redefine the partitioning of the energy balance of locomotion, the internal work components, muscle and transmission efficiency, and potentially readjust the mechanical paradigm of the different gaits.
Frictional internal work of damped limbs oscillation in human locomotion / A.E. Minetti, A.P. Moorhead, G. Pavei. - In: PROCEEDINGS - ROYAL SOCIETY. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 0962-8452. - 287:1931(2020), pp. 20201410.1-20201410.18.
|Titolo:||Frictional internal work of damped limbs oscillation in human locomotion|
MINETTI, ALBERTO ENRICO (Primo) (Corresponding)
PAVEI, GASPARE (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||limb joint; oscillation damping; locomotion; walking; cycling; internal work|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||29-lug-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.1410|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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