Background: Fluid therapy is a cornerstone of pediatric intensive care medicine. We aimed at quantifying the load of water, sodium and chloride due to different fluid indications in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We were particularly interested in the role of fluid creep, i.e. fluid administered mainly as the vehicle for drugs, and the association between sodium load and water balance. Methods: Critically ill children aged ≤3 years and invasively ventilated for ≥48 h between 2016 and 2019 in a single tertiary center PICU were retrospectively enrolled. Need for renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis or parenteral nutrition constituted exclusion criteria. Quantity, quality and indication of fluids administered intravenously or enterally, urinary output and fluid balance were recorded for the first 48 h following intubation. Concentrations of sodium and chloride provided by the manufacturers were used to compute the electrolyte load. Results: Forty-three patients (median 7 months (IQR 3-15)) were enrolled. Patients received 1004 ± 284 ml of water daily (153 ± 36 ml/kg/day), mainly due to enteral (39%), creep (34%) and maintenance (24%) fluids. Patients received 14.4 ± 4.8 mEq/kg/day of sodium and 13.6 ± 4.7 mEq/kg/day of chloride, respectively. The majority of sodium and chloride derived from fluid creep (56 and 58%). Daily fluid balance was 417 ± 221 ml (64 ± 30 ml/kg/day) and was associated with total sodium intake (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Critically ill children are exposed, especially in the acute phase, to extremely high loads of water, sodium and chloride, possibly contributing to edema development. Fluid creep is quantitatively the most relevant fluid in the PICU and future research efforts should address this topic in order to reduce the inadvertent water and electrolyte burden and improve the quality of care of critically ill children.

Fluid therapy in mechanically ventilated critically ill children: the sodium, chloride and water burden of fluid creep / T. Langer, V. D'Oria, G.C.I. Spolidoro, G. Chidini, S. Scalia Catenacci, T. Marchesi, M. Guerrini, A. Cislaghi, C. Agostoni, A. Pesenti, E. Calderini. - In: BMC PEDIATRICS. - ISSN 1471-2431. - 20:1(2020 Sep 05). [10.1186/s12887-020-02322-3]

Fluid therapy in mechanically ventilated critically ill children: the sodium, chloride and water burden of fluid creep

T. Langer
Primo
;
G.C.I. Spolidoro;C. Agostoni;A. Pesenti;E. Calderini
2020

Abstract

Background: Fluid therapy is a cornerstone of pediatric intensive care medicine. We aimed at quantifying the load of water, sodium and chloride due to different fluid indications in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We were particularly interested in the role of fluid creep, i.e. fluid administered mainly as the vehicle for drugs, and the association between sodium load and water balance. Methods: Critically ill children aged ≤3 years and invasively ventilated for ≥48 h between 2016 and 2019 in a single tertiary center PICU were retrospectively enrolled. Need for renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis or parenteral nutrition constituted exclusion criteria. Quantity, quality and indication of fluids administered intravenously or enterally, urinary output and fluid balance were recorded for the first 48 h following intubation. Concentrations of sodium and chloride provided by the manufacturers were used to compute the electrolyte load. Results: Forty-three patients (median 7 months (IQR 3-15)) were enrolled. Patients received 1004 ± 284 ml of water daily (153 ± 36 ml/kg/day), mainly due to enteral (39%), creep (34%) and maintenance (24%) fluids. Patients received 14.4 ± 4.8 mEq/kg/day of sodium and 13.6 ± 4.7 mEq/kg/day of chloride, respectively. The majority of sodium and chloride derived from fluid creep (56 and 58%). Daily fluid balance was 417 ± 221 ml (64 ± 30 ml/kg/day) and was associated with total sodium intake (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Critically ill children are exposed, especially in the acute phase, to extremely high loads of water, sodium and chloride, possibly contributing to edema development. Fluid creep is quantitatively the most relevant fluid in the PICU and future research efforts should address this topic in order to reduce the inadvertent water and electrolyte burden and improve the quality of care of critically ill children.
Chloride; Fluid overload; Fluid therapy; Hyperchloremia; Intensive care units, pediatric; Maintenance fluids; Sodium; Water-electrolyte balance;
Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
5-set-2020
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
493_Langer_BMC.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 745.1 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
745.1 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/763373
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 6
  • Scopus 11
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact