The main purpose of the PhD studies was to analyse the problem of the “not free combinability” between the words of the Russian language, in comparison with the Italian language, paying particular attention to the fixed structures connected with the semantic field of feeling and emotions. The choice to study the “not free combinability” between lexemes, (i.e. to analyse the regular fixed uses between two or more words, usually one next to the other, so that choosing the word “A” to express something, the choice of the word “B” to be combined with “A” is lexically fixed), was due to the interest in studying the rules of Russian language, which influence the fixed combination of words. Moreover, the interest in creating a structured teaching process to present such materials to Italian native speakers played an important role too. The need to analyse the matter not only from a linguistic point of view, but also considering the problem connected to the teaching of languages, was due to the importance of a correct use of such structures, as it guarantees a correct written and oral production and more precision in the translation process. Studying the fixed combinations, first, we tried to define their syntactic and semantic nature and, secondly, to conduct a depth analysis of real linguistic material in order to classify it, searching the common principles, on which base some types of substantives and some types of verbs join permanently to each other. Considering the above explanation, in the first chapter of the dissertation we analysed different linguistic theories that, according to many specialists, allow better to understand the characteristics of those syntactic-lexical structures that cannot be considered idioms, but not even free combinations of words. From this point of view, it was very important studying the works of various linguists such as A.A. Potebnja, F.F. Fortunatov, A.A. Šakhmatov, Ch. Bally, V.V. Vinogradov, N.M. Šanskij e A.I. Molotkov, just to list some names. This analysis enabled us to understand how the material we are interested in has been studied in the history of the Russian linguistic, and it gave us also the possibility to identify why the analysed structures are included in the linguistic science and, more precisely, in phraseology. Particularly important was the study of V.V. Vinogradov’s work. Moving from the Bally’s idea, who considered the structures we are interested in as fixed verbal combinations, used as periphrasis of verbs (prinimat’ rešenije – rešit’ / to make a decision – to decide), he outlined three possible meanings in the connections between the words of a language (prjamoj nominativnoe značenije, frazeologičeski svjazannoe značenije e sintaksičeski obuslovennoe značenije – nominal direct meaning, meaning connected to the phraseology and syntactically bound meaning). Then, on this base, he classified the phraseological structures (frazeologičeskije sraščenija, frazeologičeskije jedinstva e frazeologičeskije sočetanija – phraseological links, phraseological units and phraseological combinations), including the combinations that we are studying in the frazeologičeskije sočetanija (phraseological combinations). Moreover, in the doctoral work we analysed the link between semantic and syntax, on which the phraseological combinations are based. From this point of view, some principles of the G.A. Zolotova’s communicative grammar were very important. Particularly significant was the classification of Russian verbs provided in her study. The G.A. Zolotova’s analysis allowed better to understand the nature of the verb as semantic and structural unit of fixed combinations: in the frazeologičeskije sočetanija (phraseological combinations) to the noun binds almost always a particular type of verbs called, in the communicative grammar, kompensatory (compensators). These verbs, usually binding to an abstract substantive (for example čuvstvovat’ bespokojstvo – to feel concern), increase the semantic meaning of the fixed combination expressed by this substantive and allow to determine the syntactic links, through which the same fixed combination takes place in the entire phrase. The collected linguistic material has been analyzed, firstly, from semantic and structural points of view, and, secondly, it was studied focusing its stylistic characteristics. In fact we underlined how, very often, the choice of the fixed combinations that must be used depends also from the linguistic style of the produced text. Considering the above reflections, the decision to analyze the phraseological combinations related to the sphere of feelings and emotions was not accidental: our study has shown that such structures can be found in different types of languages (literary, journalistic, official, of everyday life etc.) and for this reason it was possible to extend the work taking into account different linguistic styles. For this purpose, we created a linguistic corpus containing a high number of examples of phraseological combinations referred to the semantic field of feeling and emotions. The linguistic material collected in the corpus was divided, firstly, on the basis of the “expressed feeling” (anxiety, hope, happiness, gratitude, curiosity etc.) and, secondly, considering its linguistic style (everyday language, literary language, public language, language of economy and business, journalistic language). In this way, starting from the basis of communicative linguistic, it was possible to conduct the present analysis on real linguistic material, studied inside its context of use. The created linguistic corpus was used as basis for the work carried out in the second chapter, i.e. for the construction of a classification model for the phraseological combinations, object of the dissertation. As underlined, these structures have been studied not only according to the different linguistic styles, but also considering the syntactic and linguistic connections between the words, that compose the phraseological combinations and also between such combinations and the rest of the text in which they are included. We identified four possible syntactic-lexical relations on which basis the substantives that express feelings and emotions join with different verbs. Within these four reports, we studied the types of verbs that join with the various substantives considering the syntactic-lexical relations expressed by the sentence. Thanks to this study it was possible to show that, although there are some exceptions, according to the syntactic-lexical relation that must be expressed, there are some verbs that in a big percentage join in fixed combinations with the most of the substantives of the same semantic field, or with most of those which have similar semantic characteristics. Stylistically and syntactically, we studied how, taking into account the style of the text that we have to produce, it is possible to use the upper mentioned forms, or to substitute them with different structures, which, however, maintain the same semantic value. This part of the analysis showed that the fixed phraseological combinations are stylistically marked structures used, usually, in the literature, in official documents, in journalism. In everyday colloquial language, on the opposite, personal forms, passive participial forms and impersonal predicative forms of the verbs replace such structures. For example, in colloquial language, instead of fixed phraseological combinations as “emu okhvatylo bespokojstvo” (the concern assailed him), prevail forms as “on bespokoitsja” (he is worried), “emu strašno” (he is scared) etc.. For some substantives, then, the choice to substitute the fixed phraseological combination with the correspondent verbal form, or, in some cases, with the passive participial form, depends by the meaning that must be transmitted. For example, the form “on čuvstvuet ljubov’” (he feels love), can be replaced by the expression “on ljubit” (he loves) and by “on vljublen” (he falled in love), but considering that, from a semantic point of view, the forms “on ljubit” (he loves) and “on vljublen” (he falled in love) have different meanings. In the final part of the second chapter, after the linguistic analysis of the collected material, we proposed the hypothesis that these structures can be studied also considering the theory of the so called “kartina mira” (i.e. how the speaker’s conception of the surrounding reality is reflected in the linguistic expressions of a certain people). This hypothesis is based on the idea that in the studied constructions the substantives receive a metaphoric meaning that allow them to join with a specific verb. Both works (the lexical-syntactic analysis and the analysis of the collected expressions from the metaphorical point of view) have been conducted in a contrastive perspective with Italian language. The aim of such decision was constantly to underline the links and the differences between the two languages with reference to the construction and to the use of fixed phraseological combinations. As already mentioned, the linguistic analysis was complemented by a proposal of practical use of phraseological combinations in the teaching of Russian language to the Italian native speakers. This part of analysis was treated in the third chapter of the dissertation. This proposal has taken into account the fundamental principles of foreign language teaching and considered the big literature that describes the particularity in teaching of phraseology, of lexicology and of syntax. After the analysis of existing materials about the teaching of fixed phraseological combinations in Russian as foreign language, and after studying the approaches to the matter in the most common manuals, we defined the linguistic activities related to the choice of material. We considered the meaning of the fixed phraseological combinations, the syntactic possibilities to replace them with other linguistic structures on the base of the used linguistic register, the frequency with which the various fixed structures are used in the different type of texts, the presence, or the absence, of similar structures in Italian language. After choosing the linguistic material, considering the above listed principles, we defined the teaching methodological bases, i.e. how to present the material and how to fix the time for exercises and for control of the skills. As explained, these choices were made considering the teaching of Russian language not to foreigners in general, but in particular to Italian native speakers. The result of the analysis carried out in the third chapter was a concrete proposal of didactic materials, organized for a course of ten lessons, in order to teach the main and most frequent fixed phraseological combinations that must be not only recognized, but also active used in the autonomous production. The material for these ten lessons has been completely organized within the temporal limits of an academic lecture and is followed by other material that presents also the less frequent combinations. The two blocks of teaching material have been distinguished, in order to choose when use only one of them and when use both, depending by the available time for the course. In this way, in the presented work we linked the linguistic theory, the linguistic analysis applied to the created corpus and the fundamental didactic principles, in order to provide the theoretic base for the study of frazeologičeskije sočetanija (phraseological combinations), and also to formulate an hypothesis for practical study of the analyzed structures in a course of Russian language.
Frazeologičeskie sočetanija s semantikoj čuvstv i emocij v russkom i ital’janskom jazykach / L. Paracchini ; Tutor: E. R. Garetto; Coordinatore: M. G. Di Salvo. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. , 2008 Jan 31. ((20. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2006/2007.
|Titolo:||Frazeologičeskie sočetanija s semantikoj čuvstv i emocij v russkom i ital’janskom jazykach.|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||DI SALVO, MARIA GIOVANNA|
|Data di pubblicazione:||31-gen-2008|
|Parole Chiave:||Collocations, combinability of words in Russian, phraseological combinations, metaphoric meaning of collocations, teaching of Russian as foreign language.|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore L-LIN/21 - Slavistica|
|Citazione:||Frazeologičeskie sočetanija s semantikoj čuvstv i emocij v russkom i ital’janskom jazykach / L. Paracchini ; Tutor: E. R. Garetto; Coordinatore: M. G. Di Salvo. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. , 2008 Jan 31. ((20. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2006/2007.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.13130/paracchini-laila_phd2008-01-31|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||13 - Tesi di dottorato discussa entro ottobre 2010|
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