Cell pluripotency, spatial restriction, and development are spatially and temporally controlled by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that occur without any permanent loss or alteration of genetic material, but rather through modifications "on top of it." These changes modulate the accessibility to transcription factors, either allowing or repressing their activity, thus shaping cell phenotype. Several studies have demonstrated the possibility to interact with these processes, reactivating silenced genes and inducing a high plasticity state, via an active demethylating effect, driven by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes and an overall decrease of global methylation. In agreement with this, TET activities have been shown to be indispensable for mesenchymal to epithelial transition of somatic cells into iPSCs and for small molecule-driven epigenetic erasure. Beside the epigenetic mechanisms, growing evidences highlight the importance of mechanical forces in supporting cell pluripotency, which is strongly influenced by 3D rearrangement and mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment, through the activation of specific mechanosensing-related pathways. In this review, we discuss and provide an overview of small molecule ability to modulate cell plasticity and define cell fate through the activation of direct demethylating effects. In addition, we describe the contribution of the Hippo signaling mechanotransduction pathway as one of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of pluripotency during embryo development and its induction in somatic cells.

All roads lead to Rome: the many ways to pluripotency / G. Pennarossa, F. Gandolfi, T. Brevini. - In: JOURNAL OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS. - ISSN 1058-0468. - (2020). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1007/s10815-020-01744-3]

All roads lead to Rome: the many ways to pluripotency

Pennarossa, G;Gandolfi, F;Brevini, T
2020

Abstract

Cell pluripotency, spatial restriction, and development are spatially and temporally controlled by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that occur without any permanent loss or alteration of genetic material, but rather through modifications "on top of it." These changes modulate the accessibility to transcription factors, either allowing or repressing their activity, thus shaping cell phenotype. Several studies have demonstrated the possibility to interact with these processes, reactivating silenced genes and inducing a high plasticity state, via an active demethylating effect, driven by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes and an overall decrease of global methylation. In agreement with this, TET activities have been shown to be indispensable for mesenchymal to epithelial transition of somatic cells into iPSCs and for small molecule-driven epigenetic erasure. Beside the epigenetic mechanisms, growing evidences highlight the importance of mechanical forces in supporting cell pluripotency, which is strongly influenced by 3D rearrangement and mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment, through the activation of specific mechanosensing-related pathways. In this review, we discuss and provide an overview of small molecule ability to modulate cell plasticity and define cell fate through the activation of direct demethylating effects. In addition, we describe the contribution of the Hippo signaling mechanotransduction pathway as one of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of pluripotency during embryo development and its induction in somatic cells.
Cell plasticity; Epigenetics; Mechanosensing; Reprogramming; TET activities
Settore VET/01 - Anatomia degli Animali Domestici
20-mar-2020
JOURNAL OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/723741
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