Background: Radioiodine (RAI) is a known risk factor for activation or de novo occurrence of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Several studies demonstrated that GO can be prevented by glucocorticoids (GCs) in patients with pre-existing GO. We have previously shown that Graves’ disease duration (GDd) <5 years is a risk factor for RAI-induced GO. We studied the effect of prophylaxis with either oral GCs (OGCs) or intravenous GCs (IVGCs) on GO activation in patients with GDd. Methods: In total, 99 hyperthyroid patients without GO or with pre-existing inactive GO with GDd <5 years were randomized to receive IVGCs (N = 49) or OGCs (N = 50) before RAI; 22 patients with GDd >5 did not receive steroids and were studied as controls. All patients underwent ophthalmological assessment before and 45, 90, 180 days and for a 5-year follow-up after RAI. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAbs), thyroid hormones, and thyroid volume (TV) were also measured in response to RAI therapy and steroid prophylaxis. Results: No patient on prophylaxis developed GO after RAI. One woman of the control group, without steroid prophylaxis, and who had a marked elevation of her TSH, showed transient reactivation of GO, which spontaneously improved after restoring euthyroidism. On follow-up at 12 and 20 months after RAI, two patients developed overt optic neuropathy. A smaller TV was associated with a higher prevalence of RAI-induced hypothyroidism. Serum TRAbs increased significantly after RAI (p < 0.0001) but less in patients receiving steroids than in those without prophylaxis at 45 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The risk of RAI-induced GO can be prevented in all patients with GDd <5 years by steroids. Such treatment may not be necessary in patients with GDd >5 years. The blunting of TRAb elevation after RAI may be related to the prophylactic effect of steroids.

Prevention of orbitopathy by oral or intravenous steroid prophylaxis in short duration Graves’ disease patients undergoing radioiodine ablation : A prospective randomized control trial study / G. Vannucchi, D. Covelli, I. Campi, N. Curro, D. Dazzi, M. Rodari, G. Pepe, A. Chiti, C. Guastella, E. Lazzaroni, M. Salvi. - In: THYROID. - ISSN 1050-7256. - 29:12(2019 Dec), pp. 1828-1833.

Prevention of orbitopathy by oral or intravenous steroid prophylaxis in short duration Graves’ disease patients undergoing radioiodine ablation : A prospective randomized control trial study

G. Vannucchi
;
D. Covelli;I. Campi;N. Curro;M. Rodari;E. Lazzaroni;
2019-12

Abstract

Background: Radioiodine (RAI) is a known risk factor for activation or de novo occurrence of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Several studies demonstrated that GO can be prevented by glucocorticoids (GCs) in patients with pre-existing GO. We have previously shown that Graves’ disease duration (GDd) <5 years is a risk factor for RAI-induced GO. We studied the effect of prophylaxis with either oral GCs (OGCs) or intravenous GCs (IVGCs) on GO activation in patients with GDd. Methods: In total, 99 hyperthyroid patients without GO or with pre-existing inactive GO with GDd <5 years were randomized to receive IVGCs (N = 49) or OGCs (N = 50) before RAI; 22 patients with GDd >5 did not receive steroids and were studied as controls. All patients underwent ophthalmological assessment before and 45, 90, 180 days and for a 5-year follow-up after RAI. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAbs), thyroid hormones, and thyroid volume (TV) were also measured in response to RAI therapy and steroid prophylaxis. Results: No patient on prophylaxis developed GO after RAI. One woman of the control group, without steroid prophylaxis, and who had a marked elevation of her TSH, showed transient reactivation of GO, which spontaneously improved after restoring euthyroidism. On follow-up at 12 and 20 months after RAI, two patients developed overt optic neuropathy. A smaller TV was associated with a higher prevalence of RAI-induced hypothyroidism. Serum TRAbs increased significantly after RAI (p < 0.0001) but less in patients receiving steroids than in those without prophylaxis at 45 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The risk of RAI-induced GO can be prevented in all patients with GDd <5 years by steroids. Such treatment may not be necessary in patients with GDd >5 years. The blunting of TRAb elevation after RAI may be related to the prophylactic effect of steroids.
glucocorticoids; Graves’ disease; Graves’ orbitopathy; radioiodine; TSH receptor antibodies
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/708326
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