Abstract Little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) developing when body segments of tiny mass are moved. Thus, APAs in the human upper-limb were investigated during a gentle and small index finger tap (35 mm stroke in 50 ms). This task was fulfilled by ten subjects either with prone or supine hand. EMG was recorded from Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS), the prime mover, and from several upper-limb muscles under slight tonic contraction. Regardless of hand posture, EMG was inhibited in Flexor Carpi Radialis and facilitated in Extensor Carpi Radialis well before the FDS burst. With the prone hand, the prime mover activity was preceded by Biceps inhibition and Triceps facilitation; this effect reverted in sign with the supine hand. A postural reversal was also observed in Anterior Deltoid and Trapezius which were both inhibited with the prone hand. The effect in Trapezius was present only with the unsupported forearm. It is thus demonstrated that a gentle small finger tap produces well-defined anticipatory natural synergies behaving as the most ‘‘classical’’ APAs: (1) they are distributed to several upper-limb muscles creating a postural chain aiming to prevent the effects of the interaction torques generated by the voluntary movement; (2) they change in amplitude according to the level of postural stability and (3) they revert in sign when movement direction is reverted. These results are also corroborated by data obtained from a simple mechanical model simulating finger tapping in a fictive upper-limb. A possible role of APAs in controlling movements’ accuracy is also discussed.

Anticipatory postural adjustments stabilise the whole upper-limb prior to a gentle index finger tap / A. Caronni, P. Cavallari. - In: EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH. - ISSN 0014-4819. - 194:1(2009), pp. 59-66.

Anticipatory postural adjustments stabilise the whole upper-limb prior to a gentle index finger tap

A. Caronni;P. Cavallari
2009

Abstract

Abstract Little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) developing when body segments of tiny mass are moved. Thus, APAs in the human upper-limb were investigated during a gentle and small index finger tap (35 mm stroke in 50 ms). This task was fulfilled by ten subjects either with prone or supine hand. EMG was recorded from Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS), the prime mover, and from several upper-limb muscles under slight tonic contraction. Regardless of hand posture, EMG was inhibited in Flexor Carpi Radialis and facilitated in Extensor Carpi Radialis well before the FDS burst. With the prone hand, the prime mover activity was preceded by Biceps inhibition and Triceps facilitation; this effect reverted in sign with the supine hand. A postural reversal was also observed in Anterior Deltoid and Trapezius which were both inhibited with the prone hand. The effect in Trapezius was present only with the unsupported forearm. It is thus demonstrated that a gentle small finger tap produces well-defined anticipatory natural synergies behaving as the most ‘‘classical’’ APAs: (1) they are distributed to several upper-limb muscles creating a postural chain aiming to prevent the effects of the interaction torques generated by the voluntary movement; (2) they change in amplitude according to the level of postural stability and (3) they revert in sign when movement direction is reverted. These results are also corroborated by data obtained from a simple mechanical model simulating finger tapping in a fictive upper-limb. A possible role of APAs in controlling movements’ accuracy is also discussed.
APAs; Dysmetria; Human; Interaction torques; Motor control; Posture
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/70572
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