Chemokines mediate the inflammatory response by attracting various leukocyte types. MCP-2/CC chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8) was induced at only suboptimal levels in fibroblasts and endothelial cells by IL-1β or IFN-γ, unless these cytokineswere combined. IFN-γ also synergized with the TLR ligands peptidoglycan (TLR2), dsRNA (TLR3) or LPS (TLR4). Under these conditions, intact MCP-2/CCL8(1-76) produced by fibroblasts was found to be processed into MCP-2/CCL8(6-75), which lacked chemotactic activity for monocytic cells. Furthermore, the capacity of MCP-2/CCL8(6-75) to increase intracellular calcium levels through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 was severely reduced. However, the truncated isoform still blocked these receptors for other ligands. MCP-2/ CCL8(6-75) induced internalization of CCR2, inhibited MCP-1/CCL2 and MCP-2/CCL8 ERK signaling and antagonized the chemotactic activity of several CCR2 ligands (MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8, MCP-3/CCL7). In contrast to MCP-3/CCL7, parvoviral delivery of MCP-2/CCL8 into B78/H1 melanoma failed to inhibit tumor growth, partially due to proteolytic cleavage into inactive MCP-2/CCL8 missing five NH2-terminal residues. However, in an alternative tumor model, using HeLa cells, MCP-2/CCL8 retarded tumor development. These data indicate that optimal induction and delivery of MCP-2/CCL8 is counteracted by converting this chemokine into a receptor antagonist, thereby losing its antitumoral potential.
|Titolo:||Synergistic up-regulation of MCP-2/CCL8 activity is counteracted by chemokine cleavage, limiting its inflammatory and anti-tumoral effects|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1002/eji.200838660|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|