Illicit drugs and their metabolites have been identified as emerging aquatic pollutants. Cocaine (COC) is one of the most used illicit drug worldwide. After human consumption, COC enters the aquatic ecosystems, where it is commonly detected in ng L−1 concentration range. Although a number of studies have shown that the exposure to environmental concentrations of COC can induce diverse biochemical, molecular and histological effects on aquatic organisms, the information of COC-induced behavioral alterations is scant. Thus, the present study aimed at exploring both biochemical and behavioral effects induced by the exposure to two environmental concentrations (50 ng L−1 and 500 ng L−1) of COC on the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Specimens were exposed to selected COC concentrations for 21 days and the effects on the oxidative status, including the amount of reactive oxygen species and the activity of antioxidant (SOD, CAT and GPx) and detoxifying (GST) enzymes, and swimming activity were investigated after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment, while effects on reproductive success was assessed after 21-days only. Exposure to COC induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a modulation of the activity of defense enzymes. Moreover, COC affected the swimming behavior and altered the reproductive success of treated specimens. Our results highlighted that environmental concentrations of COC can cause adverse effects at different levels of the biological hierarchy in a zooplanktonic species, confirming the potential threat due to this illicit drug for the aquatic community.

Biochemical and behavioral effects induced by cocaine exposure to Daphnia magna / B. De Felice, N. Salgueiro-Gonzalez, S. Castiglioni, N. Saino, M. Parolini. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 689(2019 Nov), pp. 141-148. [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.383]

Biochemical and behavioral effects induced by cocaine exposure to Daphnia magna

B. De Felice;N. Saino;M. Parolini
2019

Abstract

Illicit drugs and their metabolites have been identified as emerging aquatic pollutants. Cocaine (COC) is one of the most used illicit drug worldwide. After human consumption, COC enters the aquatic ecosystems, where it is commonly detected in ng L−1 concentration range. Although a number of studies have shown that the exposure to environmental concentrations of COC can induce diverse biochemical, molecular and histological effects on aquatic organisms, the information of COC-induced behavioral alterations is scant. Thus, the present study aimed at exploring both biochemical and behavioral effects induced by the exposure to two environmental concentrations (50 ng L−1 and 500 ng L−1) of COC on the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Specimens were exposed to selected COC concentrations for 21 days and the effects on the oxidative status, including the amount of reactive oxygen species and the activity of antioxidant (SOD, CAT and GPx) and detoxifying (GST) enzymes, and swimming activity were investigated after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment, while effects on reproductive success was assessed after 21-days only. Exposure to COC induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a modulation of the activity of defense enzymes. Moreover, COC affected the swimming behavior and altered the reproductive success of treated specimens. Our results highlighted that environmental concentrations of COC can cause adverse effects at different levels of the biological hierarchy in a zooplanktonic species, confirming the potential threat due to this illicit drug for the aquatic community.
Behavioral ecotoxicology; Biomarkers; Cocaine; Daphnia magna; Animals; Cocaine; Daphnia; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Illicit Drugs; Oxidative Stress; Reproduction; Water Pollutants, Chemical
Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia
nov-2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/700515
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