Data obtained from samples of poisoned domestic and wild animals sent for toxicological evaluation during the period between 2005 and 2014 have been analyzed. Among the 4606 tested samples, the majority of which were collected in the northern regions of Italy, 2006 (43.55%) were found positive for pesticides. Analytical detections were performed via solvent extraction followed by separation and chromatographic characterization and all the methods applied for the toxicological investigations were developed by IZSLER. Insecticides, mainly represented by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (carbamates 17.55%, n = 352; organophosphates 15.15%, n = 304) and organochlorines (29.21%, n = 586), were found to be the first category of pesticides involved in intoxications, in both domestic and in wild animals, followed by rodenticides (anticoagulant rodenticides 21.09%, n = 423; zinc phosphide 2.59%, n = 52; chloralose 0.95%, n = 19 and thallium 0.15%, n = 3) and molluscicides (metaldehyde 6.63%, n = 133). Second and third generation anticoagulants (bromadiolone and brodifacoum) were the most represented (10.52%, n = 211) but also first generation compounds (i.e. coumatetralyl and warfarin) were still found responsible of intoxications. Even if some pesticides are frequently involved in domestic animal poisoning (i.e. metaldehyde and strychnine), they did not show the same diffusion in wild animals. In particular, unlike domestic species, cyanide and pyrethroids have not been found responsible of intoxications in wild animals. Interestingly, a great number of positive samples involved banned pesticides like α- (14.41%, n = 289) and β- (14.16%, n = 284) endosulfan, carbofuran (5.73%, n = 115), methamidophos (9.47%, n = 190), strychnine (6.23%, n = 125) but, on the other hand, many positives were due to the exposure to commercially available products (i.e. metaldehyde and anticoagulant rodenticides). Thus, together with measures aimed to reduce illegal uses, educational campaigns and a wider range of compounds to detect would be beneficial in order to address the issue of animal poisoning, which besides has also repercussions on environmental and public health.
Types of pesticides involved in domestic and wild animal poisoning in Italy / A. Bertero, M. Chiari, N. Vitale, M. Zanoni, E. Faggionato, A. Biancardi, F. Caloni. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 707(2020 Mar).
|Titolo:||Types of pesticides involved in domestic and wild animal poisoning in Italy|
BERTERO, ALESSIA (Co-primo)
CALONI, FRANCESCA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Domestic and wild animals; Italy; Pesticides; Poisoning; Samples|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore VET/07 - Farmacologia e Tossicologia Veterinaria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136129|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|