An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels inhumanurine. Enzymatic hydrolysiswas applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt additionwere investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 ◦C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25% NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1–2 µg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14%. Recoveries ranging from 98(±3) to 121(±1)% and extraction yields higher than 72% were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes’ concentrations in the 2.2–164 µg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.
|Titolo:||A novel headspace solid-phase microextraction method using in situ derivatization and a diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|
CAMPO, LAURA (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Solid-phase microextraction ; Hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ; Urine ; Derivatization ; Experimental design|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.chroma.2009.05.072|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|