Two new quinolizidinyl-alkyl derivatives of 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline, named AM-1 and AP4b, which are highly effective in vitro against both the D10 (chloroquine [CQ] susceptible) and W2 (CQ resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in the rodent malaria model, have been studied for their ability to bind to and be internalized by normal or parasitized human red blood cells (RBC) and for their effects on RBC membrane stability. In addition, an analysis of the heme binding properties of these compounds and of their ability to inhibit beta-hematin formation in vitro has been performed. Binding of AM1 or AP4b to RBC is rapid, dose dependent, and linearly related to RBC density. Their accumulation in parasitized RBC (pRBC) is increased twofold compared to levels in normal RBC. Binding of AM1 or AP4b to both normal and pRBC is higher than that of CQ, in agreement with the lower pKa and higher lipophilicity of the compounds. AM1 or AP4b is not hemolytic per se and is less hemolytic than CQ when hemolysis is accelerated (induced) by hematin. Moreover, AM-1 and AP4b bind heme with a stoichiometry of interaction similar to that of CQ (about 1:1.7) but with a lower affinity. They both inhibit dose dependently the formation of beta-hematin in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration comparable to that of CQ. Taken together, these results suggest that the antimalarial activity of AM1 or AP4b is likely due to inhibition of hemozoin formation and that the efficacy of these compounds against the CQ-resistant strains can be ascribed to their hydrophobicity and capacity to accumulate in the vacuolar lipid (elevated lipid accumulation ratios).
Novel antimalarial aminoquinolines : heme binding and effects on normal or Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized human erythrocytes / F. Omodeo-Salè, L. Cortelezzi, N. Basilico, M. Casagrande, A. Sparatore, D. Taramelli. - In: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY. - ISSN 0066-4804. - 53:10(2009 Oct), pp. 4339-4344.
|Titolo:||Novel antimalarial aminoquinolines : heme binding and effects on normal or Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized human erythrocytes|
OMODEO SALE', MARIA FAUSTA (Primo)
CORTELEZZI, LUCIA (Secondo)
SPARATORE, ANNA CONCETTINA (Penultimo)
TARAMELLI, DONATELLA (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
|Data di pubblicazione:||ott-2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00536-09|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|