Anderson-Fabry disease (AFd) is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL) metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the activity of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A). The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include characteristic skin lesions (angiokeratomas), neurological symptoms (acroparesthesia), ocular features (cornea verticillata), cardiac involvement (left ventricular enlargement, conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular manifestations (thromboses, hemorrhage, etc.), and kidney involvement with progression to end-stage renal failure (ESRF). ESRF is a common manifestation in hemizygous males (3rd-5th decade) and death occurs around the 5th decade of life because of severe cardiac and/or cerebrovascular complications. Heterozygous females have an attenuated form of this systemic disease. In the kidney, accumulation of GL occurs in the endothelial cells of every vessel, in the epithelial cells of every tubular segment, and in all kinds of glomerular cells. The broad spectrum of renal lesions is a pathophysiological continuum with progressive impairment in the renal function related to continuous intracellular deposition of GL. Electron microscopic study of renal biopsies shows typical osmiophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of all kind of renal cells, characterized by concentric lamellation of clear and dark layers (35-50 A of periodicity). ESRF is treated by dialysis and kidney transplantation: neither treatment modifies the progression of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular lesions due to progressive GL deposition. The outcome of kidney transplantation seems to be similar to that found in other non-diabetic patients, but the survival rate on dialysis is lower than in patients with other causes of ESRF. Nowadays, treatment with enzyme replacement infusion with purified alpha-Gal A, produced by a genetically engineered human cell line or Chinese hamster ovocytes, seems to be effective and safe.
|Titolo:||Renal involvement in Anderson-Fabry disease|
VAGO, GIANLUCA GAETANO (Penultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|