Cardiac ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening arrhythmia consisting of a well organized structure of reentrant electrical excitation pathways. Understanding the generation and maintenance of the reentrant mechanisms, which lead to the onset of VT induced by premature beats in presence of infarct scar, is one of the most important issues in current electrocardiology. We investigate, by means of numerical simulations, the role of infarct scar dimension, repolarization properties and anisotropic fiber structure of scar tissue border zone (BZ) in the genesis of VT. The simulations are based on the Bidomain model, a reaction-diffusion system of Partial Differential Equations, discretized by finite elements in space and implicit-explicit finite differences in time. The computational domain adopted is an idealized left ventricle affected by an infarct scar extending transmurally. We consider two different scenarios: i) the scar region extends along the entire transmural wall thickness, from endocardium to epicardium, with the exception of a BZ region shaped as a central sub-epicardial channel (CBZ); ii) the scar region extends transmurally along the ventricular wall, from endocardium to a sub-epicardial surface, and is surrounded by a BZ region (EBZ). In CBZ simulations, the results have shown that: i) the scar extent is a crucial element for the genesis of reentry; ii) the repolarization properties of the CBZ, in particular the reduction of IKs and IKr currents, play an important role in the genesis of reentrant VT. In EBZ simulations, since the possible reentrant pathway is not assigned a-priori, we investigate in depth where the entry and exit sites of the cycle of reentry are located and how the functional channel of reentry develops. The results have shown that: i) the interplay between the epicardial anisotropic fiber structure and the EBZ shape strongly affects the propensity that an endocardial premature stimulus generates a cycle of reentry; ii) reentrant pathways always develop along the epicardial fiber direction; iii) very thin EBZs rather than thick EBZs facilitate the onset of cycles of reentry; iv) the sustainability of cycles of reentry depends on the endocardial stimulation site and on the interplay between the epicardial breakthrough site, local fiber direction and BZ rim.
Role of infarct scar dimensions, border zone repolarization properties and anisotropy in the origin and maintenance of cardiac reentry / P. Colli-Franzone, V. Gionti, L.F. Pavarino, S. Scacchi, C. Storti. - In: MATHEMATICAL BIOSCIENCES. - ISSN 0025-5564. - 315(2019 Sep).
|Titolo:||Role of infarct scar dimensions, border zone repolarization properties and anisotropy in the origin and maintenance of cardiac reentry|
SCACCHI, SIMONE (Penultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Bidomain simulations; cardiac reentry; infarct border zone; myocardial infarction; ventricular tachycardia|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MAT/08 - Analisi Numerica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2019.108228|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|