The abnormal deposition of proteins in brain tissue is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) often accompanied by the spread of mutated proteins, causing neuronal toxicity. Exosomes play a fundamental role on their releasing in extracellular space after endosomal pathway activation, allowing to remove protein aggregates by lysosomal degradation or their inclusion into multivesicular bodies (MVBs), besides promoting cellular cross-talk. The emerging evidence of pathogenic mutations associated to ND susceptibility, leading to impairment of exosome production and secretion, opens a new perspective on the mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration. Recent findings suggest to investigate the genetic mechanisms regulating the different exosome functions in central nervous system (CNS), to understand their role in the pathogenesis of NDs, addressing the identification of diagnostic and pharmacological targets. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms underlying exosome biogenesis, their molecular composition and functions in CNS, with a specific focus on the recent findings invoking a defective exosome biogenesis as a common biological feature of the major NDs, caused by genetic alterations. Further definition of the consequences of specific genetic mutations on exosome biogenesis and release will improve diagnostic and pharmacological studies in NDs.

Emerging Role of Genetic Alterations Affecting Exosome Biology in Neurodegenerative Diseases / P. Riva, C. Battaglia, M. Venturin. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 20:17(2019 Sep). [10.3390/ijms20174113]

Emerging Role of Genetic Alterations Affecting Exosome Biology in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Riva, Paola;Battaglia, Cristina;Venturin, Marco
2019-09

Abstract

The abnormal deposition of proteins in brain tissue is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) often accompanied by the spread of mutated proteins, causing neuronal toxicity. Exosomes play a fundamental role on their releasing in extracellular space after endosomal pathway activation, allowing to remove protein aggregates by lysosomal degradation or their inclusion into multivesicular bodies (MVBs), besides promoting cellular cross-talk. The emerging evidence of pathogenic mutations associated to ND susceptibility, leading to impairment of exosome production and secretion, opens a new perspective on the mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration. Recent findings suggest to investigate the genetic mechanisms regulating the different exosome functions in central nervous system (CNS), to understand their role in the pathogenesis of NDs, addressing the identification of diagnostic and pharmacological targets. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms underlying exosome biogenesis, their molecular composition and functions in CNS, with a specific focus on the recent findings invoking a defective exosome biogenesis as a common biological feature of the major NDs, caused by genetic alterations. Further definition of the consequences of specific genetic mutations on exosome biogenesis and release will improve diagnostic and pharmacological studies in NDs.
exosome biogenesis; exosome cargo; exosome pathway impairment; genetic lesions; neurodegenerative diseases
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
23-ago-2019
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/673280
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